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Technology Breakthroughs 2019 | Crew Art Production

Technology Breakthroughs 2019 | Crew Art Production

Technology Breakthroughs 2019

Technology Breakthroughs 2019
what is technology:
technology is the knowledge of techniques and processes mixed with skills and methods that enables human to apply this knowledge, technology had started by the pre-historic man when he used a very simple tools to secure his living from food and protection, then technology uses evolved from just a surviving tool to become the backbone of living that interfered in every single detail of human daily life, from the Toothpick to the space-traveling that is like a dream coming true as their rich tourists had made a space trip and its expected that it will be common and affordable trip in the upcoming years, so let’s talk about the most exciting technology breakthroughs in 2019.
Top Breakthroughs
5G Technology:
2019 is going to witness the releasing of the fifth generation of cellular mobile communication (5G) that featured with reduced latency, energy saving, cost reduction, higher system capacity, and massive device connectivity, and it’s the natural evolution of the 4G Technology that had been released on 2009 in Sweden and that was a great breakthrough in the history of mobile internet that the internet speed could reach 100 megabytes per second for high mobility mobile communication, so let’s get back to 5G technology that its speed is expected to reach 2500 MB (Megabyte) per second as peck performance, 5G mobile devices had seen a great improvement in technicality as it depend on a cell communicate by radio waves with a local antenna array and automated transceiver in the cell with low power consumption rate the antenna is connected with the telephone network through optical fiber cables or wireless backhaul connection, the devices that will equip the 5G technology is going to have 4G LTE capability as the 5G access is not available everywhere till now, the 5G is going to be used in the autonomous vehicles to support it with data about the surrounding environment in real time and nearby vehicles that could exchange their locations and intentions, the roadway is also able to deliver traffic conditions immediately ahead, which will ease the task of driving, also 5G technology is going to be compatible for laptops computers to enhance its Internet communication.
Virtual Reality (VR):
Virtual reality (VR) technology had started in the early 1950th as Morton Heling wrote about the “theater experience”, and built a prototype of Sensorama vision dubbed in 1962, this device displays engaged multiple scenes, then he developed the “Telesphere Mask”, the year 1968 had seen the releasing of the first head mounting display (HMD) system for simulation applications by Douglas Engelbart and other scientists, the 70th had seen a great leap in the virtual reality technology by interfering in many fields like medical, military and even space science as David Em was the first one to produce navigable virtual worlds in NASA laboratory, in 1979 Eric Howlett developed the Extra Perspective (LEEP) optical system which make the virtual reality helmets available today, 1991 had seen the invention of the first cubic impressive room allowing people to see their own bodies in relation to each other’s in the room, between the years 1982 and 1992 Nicole Stenger created the first real time interactive impressive movie that viewed by using a dataglove and a high resolution googles, then the new millennium comes with new update in VR technology, by the year 2001 the first pc based on cubic room had been invented, in the year 2007 google had released the street panoramic view by using 3D stereoscopic mode, 2013 had seen the start of using the virtual reality technology in smart phones by using a headset that used in virtual and augmentation of reality, the Oculus VR project had seen the light Valve Corporation, in the year 2014 Facebook had bought the Oculus VR for 2 Million dollar, and also Sony had announced the launch of the PlayStation VR project, In the year 2015 Google had announced the launch of cardboard a do-it-yourself stereoscopic viewer for smartphones, 2016 had seen a great leap in the VR technology development by many companies specially HTC which had shipped the Vive Steam VR headset as the major commercial release in this year, Sony had continued the development of the wireless headset and evolved it and released the Vive for PlayStation VR. 2019 is going to see a great leap in VR technology as Sony is working to release 3D Rubber Motion Controller for PlayStation VR, SOMNIACS company is working on Somniacs Birdly VR Flying Simulator, but this will not be the last update in the VR technology.
Artificial intelligence (AI) technology
AI
Artificial intelligence concept had started to be known from the year 1940 by the invention of the programmable digital computer, the machine based on abstract essence of mathematical reasoning, Dartmouth college had founded the AI research field in the year 1956, by the year 1973 the artificial inelegance had faced a new challenge from the USA and the British governments as they stopped the funding undirected research into artificial intelligence, the investors started to take the role of the governments in the funding this research but by the 80th they started to withdraw from this business because of the absence of the needed computer power (hardware), but this all had changed by the beginning of the 21 century as that the machine learning was successfully solved a lot of academic and industrial problems, the AI development in the new millennium started with the creation of the interactive toys (smart toys) in the year 2000, in the year 2004 Nasa had navigated the surface of Mars with autonomously robotic exploration rovers, in 2005 Honda released a humanoid robot that is able to walk as fast as humans and he worked as a food servant in restaurant, but the year 2005 had seen a new thinking in the AI technology by the initiation of the blue brain project that aimed to identify the structure of human brain and detect its function in disease and health, between years 2010 and 2014 the humans are being able to communicate and even speak with robots as in 2011 Apple had launched the Siri project and in year 2012 google had launched Google Now, and then the turn comes on Microsoft that released the smartphone apps the uses the natural language to answer the received questions, make recommendations and even perform actions, Artificial Intelligence (AI) Technology is going to see a great leap in 2019 as this year will see the release of:
1- Automated CCTV security cameras:
that featured by:
  • It could predict potential vulnerabilities, threats and menace.
  • Tracking missing children.
  • Tracking theft vehicles.
  • Quick action.
  • Identifying criminals and suspected people between the large crowd.
2- general adversarial networks (GANs):
A new concept that will be released in 2019 that will make your AI smarter as an example it could be able to distinguish between the real image or a realistic image that is created by AI technology.
3- Chatbot:
Chatbot that is also known as Smartbot, Talkbot, chatterbot, IM Bot, interactive agent, conventional interface and artificial conversational entity, the Chatbot concept is an artificial intelligence which conducts a conversation via auditory or textual methods, this technology had started in the early 20th century in the year 1960, but in the middle of the century that this technology had turned from simple conversions to powerful promotional tools for media brands and e-commerce businesses, 80% of companies are expected to be using the Chatbot by the year 2020.
3D Printing
3D Printing
3D printing is a number of various computer controlled processes to create a three-dimension object is made by joining and solidifying the material, 3D printing had started to enter the production industry in the early 80th particularly in 1981 when the Japanese scientist Hideo Kodama has invented two methods for fabricating three dimensional plastic models with photo hardening method, the use of 3D printing in production started with functional or aesthetical prototypes then it turned to be additive manufacturing that it can be used in manufacturing a very complex shape or geometry that is pre designed by 3D model or a CAD file, 2019 is going to see a leap in 3D printing specially in the metal 3D printing which depend on digital model that uses layer by layer material build-up approach which gives the metal a full density and high precision, the metal 3D printing technology is going to be used in manufacturing aerospace, oil & gas, automobile and marine applications, 3D printing is going to use new materials and enter the phase of mass production with high technology machines, 3D printing will see new types in 2019 by these types:
Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM): is also known as Fused Filament Fabrication which is the most commonly available and cheapest type of 3D printing.
stereolithographic (SLA): which is known as the world first 3D printing technology as its history returns to the year 1986, stereolithographic printing is Featured by using mirrors but it also had a big disadvantage that it takes too long to trace the cross-section of an object when compared to DLP.
Digital Light Processing (DLP): this type of 3D printing uses a digital light projector to flash one image for each layer at once or images of multiple flashes for larger parts, the output of this type of 3D printing is a digital image composed of square pixels resulting from rectangular blocks called Voxels.
Selective laser sintering (SLS): its creating objects by using Powder Bed Fusion technology and polymer powder, this type of 3D printing is going to be commonly used due to its low price and this type is featured by using a CO2 laser beam in scanning the object surface.
Material Jetting (MJ): this type of 3D printing has the same concept of normal inkjet printers but the difference in this printing type is that it builds multiple layers of ink upon each other until it turns to solid part, Material Jetting featured by offering objects made from multi-material printing and with full-color.
Drop On Demand (DOD): this type of 3D printing featured by using a pair of ink Jets, one looks like a wax material and the other used for dissolvable support material, DOD printing featured by using a fly-cutter that skims the build area after the creation of each layer to ensure the commencing of this layer, this type of printing is used in casting the lost wax and suitable for other mold making applications.
Sand binder jetting: mainly this type of 3D printing depends on mixing the PMMA powder with binding liquid as an agent to produce parts colors are added to the mixture through another nozzle, binder jetting useful in production of sand cast molds and cores as they are generally made of artificial sand or (silica), this type of 3D printing is featured with its low cost and quite easily integrated into existing manufacturing of foundry process without disruption.
Metal binder jetting: this type of 3D printing is used in the fabrication of metal objects, as the metal powder is bond together using a more poly binding agent, metal binder jetting is featured by producing complex geometries objects beyond conventional manufacturing techniques, this process is done on main steps of infiltration process than adding bronze is the object then we go for the sintering process, the output of this printing type had an issue of non-uniform shrinkage that is solved in the design stage.
Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS): this type of 3D printing is like SLS type but the difference in that it is applied on metal objects, laser is used in fusing the metal powder at a point reaching molecular level, DMLS printing process needs a structural support as the output object is Vulnerable to distortion and wrapping due to residual stress.
Electron Beam Melting (EBM): high energy Electron beam is used in the metal fusion; EBM printing is featured with superior building speed upon any other 3D printing types because of its high energy density.
Financial
Financial breakthroughs
Blockchain:
Blockchain or blockchain is a growing list of records called blocks using cryptography, blockchains are resistance to modification of the data that was first described in the year 1991 but it was actually created as public transaction ledger of the cryptocurrency (bitcoin) by Satoshi Nakamoto in the year 2008, it is managed by peer to peer network collectivity adhering to a protocol for internal code communication and validating new blocks once recorded, blockchains has many types:
Public blockchains:
Public blockchains have absolutely no access restrictions, its useful as that anyone has a connection to the internet could send transactions as validator, bitcoins and Ethereum are the most known public blockchains Applications.
Private blockchains:
Private blockchains feathered with high privacy as there is no one could join the network until he had been invited by the network administrations, and even the participant and validator access is restricted, this type of blockchains is the most appropriate for companies that are interested in Blockchain technology because of the high control level, its main implement is in accounting and record keeping producer’s business.
Consortium blockchains:
Consortium blockchains are semi-decentralized as its controlling lies between the hands of many companies might control one node in the network and not just a single organization that controls the network.
Blockchains technology will see a great leap in 2019 as these types will rise:
Blockchain will work as a service (BaaS):
BaaS is a cloud-based service that allows customers to build their own Blockchain powered products and it could be including applications, smart contracts, and other Blockchain features without the need to set up or build Blockchain based infrastructure.
Hybrid Blockchain:
Hybrid Blockchain works by providing the best features and functionality of both private and public blockchains, hybrid Blockchain isn’t widely used but it is considered to be the most appropriate for banks.
Federated Blockchain:
Federated Blockchain is the natural evolution of the normal Blockchain, it looks like the private Blockchain but has a more customizable outlook, federated blockchains mainly used in financial services.
Ricardian contracts:
Ricardian contracts are the start of the dependence on legal contracts that cryptographically signed and verified, Ricardian contracts provide unique solutions so that they could be understood without mediator or service for both human and computers.
Interoperability between Blockchains:
Interoperability Blockchains aims to improve information across several networks or other Blockchains networks, the cross chain services improve the daily use of Blockchains, 2019 will see an improvement in the interoperability Blockchains technology, the main applications for Interoperability Blockchains are BlockNet, Aion, WanChain, and others.
Stable Coins:
Stable coins are the side product of the cryptocurrencies, that is affected by the market condition and the stability maintained in all time, most of the stable coins are fiat-chained but they are also backed by commodity stable coins, the main applications for stable coins are everyday currency transaction and P2P payments.
Security Tokens:
Security tokens had replaced the ICOs because it is more secure and protects the investor’s rights redefines the whole investment process, by the current year 2019 investors will tend to use security tokens (STO) than (ICO).
Financial Relegation:
Financial relegation is a type of relegation or supervision, which targets financial institutions with certain requirements, guidelines and restrictions that aims to maintain integrity of the financial system, this system could be handled by government or non-government organization, financial relegation had initiated by the Dutch authorities in the early modern period on the year 1610 as short selling which means that the buyer doesn’t own the asset but he borrows it from the seller and returns it back after short time with profit, then the Financial relegation took its development way until it took the form of banks in our days, the 2010 financial crisis had affected the relegation in a positive way as regulators put a fourth substantial number of new strengthened regulations and expanded requirements, 2018 had seen a great focus on legislative agenda towards protecting the consumers and investors and encouraging financial technology innovation, 2019 is going to see big leap in the financial relegation field as Asian investors will continue their 2018 financial vision to make the trajectory of embedding global post-crisis reforms, and make the Asia-pacific outlook the trends navigating guide across the region, in Europe 2019 is expected to be the year of continuity of regulatory terms, As the first half of the year will be finalizing the legislative initiatives to complete the banking Union, strengthen the EMU, and Capital markets Union.
largest technology construction projects in 2019
largest technology construction projects in 2019
London Crossrail:
London Crossrail is the world first continues growing underground system that it extends the railway system with 73 miles (117 kilometers) that links between Berkshire and Buckinghamshire this line holds the name of Elizabeth Line that will be divided into two lines, this huge project expected to cost 23 million Pound, London Crossrail had the approval to start to work on it on 2008 and it’s excepted to launch in autumn 2019.
Benban Solar Park:
Benban solar park will be the world largest photovoltaic power station than expected to generate 1650 (MVP), its located in Upper Egypt particularly in Aswan, the Benban solar park is part of Egypt’s Nubian sun project that aims to be part of generating 20% renewable power of total Egyptian needed power, this Egyptian national project is expected to start working by the end of 2019.
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Good news for the Dexes! Joint Statement on Broker-Dealer Custody of Digital Asset Securities

Source: https://www.finra.org/newsroom/2019/joint-statement-broker-dealer-custody-digital-asset-securities

Joint Statement on Broker-Dealer Custody of Digital Asset Securities

WASHINGTON – Market participants have raised questions concerning the application of the federal securities laws and the rules of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”) to the potential intermediation—including custody—of digital asset securities1 and transactions. In this statement, the staffs of the Division of Trading and Markets (the “Division”) and FINRA (collectively, the “Staffs”)—drawing upon key principles from their historic approach to broker-dealer regulation and investor protection—have articulated various considerations relevant to many of these questions, particularly under the SEC’s Customer Protection Rule applicable to SEC-registered broker-dealers.2
As a threshold matter, it should be recognized by market participants that the application of the federal securities laws, FINRA rules and other bodies of laws to digital assets, digital asset securities and related innovative technologies raise novel and complex regulatory and compliance questions and challenges. For example, and as discussed in more detail below, the ability of a broker-dealer to comply with aspects of the Customer Protection Rule is greatly facilitated by established laws and practices regarding the loss or theft of a security, that may not be available or effective in the case of certain digital assets.
The Staffs are aware of, and encourage and support, efforts to address these issues such that compliance with the Customer Protection Rule and other federal securities laws and FINRA rules is reasonably practicable. In recent months, the Staffs have been engaged with industry participants regarding how industry participants believe a particular custody solution for digital asset securities would meet the possession or control standards prescribed in the SEC’s Customer Protection Rule. The Staffs have found these discussions to be very informative and appreciate market participants’ ongoing engagement on these issues. The Staffs encourage and support innovation and look forward to continuing our dialogue as market participants work toward developing methodologies for establishing possession or control over customers’ digital asset securities. Contact information for Commission and FINRA staffs is provided at the end of this statement.
Importance of the Customer Protection Rule
Entities seeking to participate in the marketplace for digital asset securities must comply with the relevant securities laws.3 An entity that buys, sells, or otherwise transacts or is involved in effecting transactions in digital asset securities for customers or its own account is subject to the federal securities laws, and may be required to register with the Commission as a broker-dealer and become a member of and comply with the rules of a self-regulatory organization (“SRO”), which in most cases is FINRA. Importantly, if the entity is a broker-dealer, it must comply with broker-dealer financial responsibility rules,4 including, as applicable, custodial requirements under Rule 15c3-3 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the “Exchange Act”), which is known as the Customer Protection Rule.
The purpose of the Customer Protection Rule is to safeguard customer securities and funds held by a broker-dealer, to prevent investor loss or harm in the event of a broker-dealer’s failure, and to enhance the Commission’s ability to monitor and prevent unsound business practices. Put simply, the Customer Protection Rule requires broker-dealers to safeguard customer assets and to keep customer assets separate from the firm’s assets, thus increasing the likelihood that customers’ securities and cash can be returned to them in the event of the broker-dealer’s failure. The requirements of the Customer Protection Rule have produced a nearly fifty year track record5 of recovery for investors when their broker-dealers have failed. This record of protecting customer assets held in custody by broker-dealers stands in contrast to recent reports of cybertheft,6 and underscores the need to ensure broker-dealers’ robust protection of customer assets, including digital asset securities.
Various unregistered entities that intend to engage in broker-dealer activities involving digital asset securities are seeking to register with the Commission and have submitted New Membership Applications (“NMAs”) to FINRA. Additionally, various entities that are already registered broker-dealers and FINRA members are seeking to expand their businesses to include digital asset securities services and activities. Under FINRA rules, a firm is prohibited from materially changing its business operations (e.g., engaging in material digital asset securities activities for the first time) without FINRA’s prior approval of a Continuing Membership Application (“CMA”).7
The NMAs and CMAs currently before FINRA are diverse: Some of the NMAs and CMAs cover proposed business models that would not involve the broker-dealer engaging in custody of digital asset securities. On the other hand, some NMAs and CMAs include the custodying of digital asset securities, and therefore implicate the Customer Protection Rule, among other requirements.
Some of these entities have met with the Staffs to discuss how they propose to custody digital asset securities in order to comply with the broker-dealer financial responsibility rules. These discussions have been informative. The specific circumstances where a broker-dealer could custody digital asset securities in a manner that the Staffs believe would comply with the Customer Protection Rule remain under discussion, and the Staffs stand ready to continue to engage with entities pursuing this line of business.
Noncustodial Broker-Dealer Models for Digital Asset Securities
As noted, some entities contemplate engaging in broker-dealer activities involving digital asset securities that would not involve the broker-dealer engaging in custody functions. Generally speaking, noncustodial activities involving digital asset securities do not raise the same level of concern among the Staffs, provided that the relevant securities laws, SRO rules, and other legal and regulatory requirements are followed.8The following are examples of some of the business activities of this type that have been presented or described to the Staffs.
Considerations for Broker-Dealer Custody of Digital Asset Securities
Whether a security is paper or digital, the same fundamental elements of the broker-dealer financial responsibility rules apply. The Staffs acknowledge that market participants wishing to custody digital asset securities may find it challenging to comply with the broker-dealer financial responsibility rules without putting in place significant technological enhancements and solutions unique to digital asset securities. As the market, infrastructure, and law applicable to digital asset securities continue to develop, the Staffs will continue their constructive engagement with market participants and to gather additional information so that they may better respond to developments in the market10while advancing the missions of our respective organizations: for the SEC, to protect investors; maintain fair, orderly, and efficient markets; and facilitate capital formation; and for FINRA, to provide investor protection and promote market integrity.
The Customer Protection Rule
Overview
A broker-dealer seeking to custody digital asset securities must comply with the Customer Protection Rule. As noted, the rule is designed principally to protect customers of a registered broker-dealer from losses and delays in accessing their securities and cash that can occur if the firm fails. The rule requires the broker-dealer to safeguard customer securities and cash entrusted to the firm, as discussed below. If the broker-dealer fails, customer securities and cash should be readily available to be returned to customers.11 In the event the broker-dealer were to be liquidated under SIPA, the SIPA trustee would be expected to step into the shoes of the broker-dealer and expected to be able to transfer, sell, or otherwise dispose of assets in accordance with SIPA.12
Among its core protections for customers, Rule 15c3-3 requires a broker-dealer to physically hold customers’ fully paid and excess margin securities or maintain them free of lien at a good control location.13 Generally, a broker-dealer may custody customer securities with a third-party custodian (e.g., the Depository Trust Company or a clearing bank),14 and uncertificated securities, such as mutual funds, may be held at the issuer or at the issuer’s transfer agent.15 In either case, there is a third party that controls the transfer of the securities. This traditional securities infrastructure (including, for example, related laws of property and security) also has processes to reverse or cancel mistaken or unauthorized transactions.
Considerations for Digital Asset Securities
There are many significant differences in the mechanics and risks associated with custodying traditional securities and digital asset securities. For instance, the manner in which digital asset securities are issued, held, and transferred may create greater risk that a broker-dealer maintaining custody of them could be victimized by fraud or theft, could lose a “private key” necessary to transfer a client’s digital asset securities, or could transfer a client’s digital asset securities to an unknown or unintended address without meaningful recourse to invalidate fraudulent transactions, recover or replace lost property, or correct errors. Consequently, a broker-dealer must consider how it can, in conformance with Rule 15c3-3, hold in possession or control digital asset securities.
In particular, a broker-dealer may face challenges in determining that it, or its third-party custodian, maintains custody of digital asset securities.16 If, for example, the broker-dealer holds a private key, it may be able to transfer such securities reflected on the blockchain or distributed ledger. However, the fact that a broker-dealer (or its third party custodian) maintains the private key may not be sufficient evidence by itself that the broker-dealer has exclusive control of the digital asset security (e.g., it may not be able to demonstrate that no other party has a copy of the private key and could transfer the digital asset security without the broker-dealer’s consent).17 In addition, the fact that the broker-dealer (or custodian) holds the private key may not be sufficient to allow it to reverse or cancel mistaken or unauthorized transactions. These risks could cause securities customers to suffer losses, with corresponding liabilities for the broker-dealer, imperiling the firm, its customers, and other creditors.
The Books and Records and Financial Reporting Rules
Overview
The broker-dealer recordkeeping and reporting rules18 require a broker-dealer, among other things, to make and keep current ledgers reflecting all assets and liabilities,19 as well as a securities record reflecting each security carried by the broker-dealer for its customers and all differences determined by the count of customer securities in the broker-dealer’s possession or control compared to the result of the count with the broker-dealer’s existing books and records.20 The financial responsibility rules also require that broker-dealers routinely prepare financial statements,21 including various supporting schedules particular to broker-dealers, such as Computation of Net Capital under Rule 15c3-1 and Information Relating to the Possession or Control Requirements under Rule 15c3-3 under the Exchange Act.22
The books, records, and financial reporting requirements are designed to ensure that a broker-dealer makes and maintains certain business records to assist the firm in accounting for its activities. These rules also assist securities regulators in examining for compliance with the federal securities laws and as such are an integral part of the financial responsibility program for broker-dealers.
Considerations for Digital Asset Securities
The nature of distributed ledger technology, as well as the characteristics associated with digital asset securities, may make it difficult for a broker-dealer to evidence the existence of digital asset securities for the purposes of the broker-dealer’s regulatory books, records, and financial statements, including supporting schedules. The broker-dealer’s difficulties in evidencing the existence of these digital asset securities may in turn create challenges for the broker-dealer’s independent auditor seeking to obtain sufficient appropriate audit evidence when testing management’s assertions in the financial statements during the annual broker-dealer audit.23 We understand that some firms are considering the use of distributed ledger technology with features designed to enable firms to meet recordkeeping obligations and facilitate prompt verification of digital asset security positions (e.g., regulatory nodes or permissioned distributed ledger technologies). Broker-dealers should consider how the nature of the technology may impact their ability to comply with the broker-dealer recordkeeping and reporting rules.
Securities Investor Protection Act of 1970
Overview
Generally, a broker-dealer that fails and is unable to return the customer property that it holds would be liquidated in accordance with SIPA. Under SIPA, securities customers have a first priority claim to cash and securities held by the firm for securities customers. Customers also are eligible for up to $500,000 in protection (of which up to $250,000 can be used for cash claims) if the broker-dealer is missing customer assets. These SIPA protections apply to a “security” as defined in SIPA and cash deposited with the broker-dealer for the purpose of purchasing securities.24 They do not apply to other types of assets, including, importantly, assets that are securities under the federal securities laws but are excluded from the definition of “security” under SIPA.25
Considerations for Digital Asset Securities
In the case of a digital asset security that does not meet the definition of “security” under SIPA, and in the event of the failure of a carrying broker-dealer, SIPA protection likely would not apply and holders of those digital asset securities would have only unsecured general creditor claims against the broker-dealer’s estate.26 Further, uncertainty regarding when and whether a broker-dealer holds a digital asset security in its possession or control creates greater risk for customers that their securities will not be able to be returned in the event of a broker-dealer failure.27 The Staffs believe that such potential outcomes are likely to be inconsistent with the expectations of persons who would use a broker-dealer to custody their digital asset securities.
Control Location Applications
As a related matter, the Staffs have received inquiries from broker-dealers, including ATSs, wishing to utilize an issuer or transfer agent as a proposed “control location” for purposes of the possession or control requirements under the Customer Protection Rule. As described to the Staffs, this would involve uncertificated securities where the issuer or a transfer agent maintains a traditional single master security holder list, but also publishes as a courtesy the ownership record using distributed ledger technology. While the issuer or transfer agent may publish the distributed ledger, in these examples, the broker-dealers have asserted that the distributed ledger is not the authoritative record of share ownership. To the extent a broker-dealer contemplates an arrangement of this type, the Division will consider whether the issuer or the transfer agent can be considered a satisfactory control location pursuant to an application under paragraph (c)(7) of Rule 15c3-3.28
As noted, the Staffs encourage and support innovation in the securities markets and look forward to continuing to engage with investors and industry participants as the marketplace for digital asset securities develops. To contact Commission staff for assistance, please visit the Commission’s FinHub webpage or contact Thomas K. McGowan, Associate Director, at (202) 551-5521 or Raymond Lombardo, Assistant Director, at (202) 551-5755. To contact FINRA staff for assistance, please visit FINRA’s FinTech webpage or contact Kosha Dalal, Associate Vice President and Associate General Counsel, FINRA, (202) 728-6903.
1 For the purposes of this statement, the term “digital asset” refers to an asset that is issued and transferred using distributed ledger or blockchain technology, including, but not limited to, so-called “virtual currencies,” “coins,” and “tokens.” A digital asset may or may not meet the definition of a “security” under the federal securities laws. For the purposes of this statement, a digital asset that is a security is referred to as a “digital asset security.”
2 This statement represents staff views of the Division of Trading and Markets and FINRA. This statement is not a rule, regulation, guidance, or statement of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC” or “Commission”) or FINRA, and the Commission and FINRA’s Board have neither approved nor disapproved its content. This statement does not alter or amend applicable law and has no legal force or effect.
3 For purposes of this statement, the Staffs use the term “entities” to refer to both firms and individuals.
4 The financial responsibility rules include Rule 15c3-1 (the net capital rule), Rule 15c3-3 (the customer protection rule), Rule 17a-3 (the record making rule), Rule 17a-4 (the record retention rule), Rule 17a-5 (the financial reporting rule), and Rule 17a-13 (the quarterly securities count rule) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (“Exchange Act”). This statement does not address all federal securities laws that may be implicated by a broker-dealer seeking to maintain custody of digital asset securities. Further, this statement does not address other securities laws or rules that may apply to digital asset securities.
5 Rule 15c3-3 was adopted by the Commission in 1972. See Broker-Dealers; Maintenance of Certain Basic Reserves, Exchange Act Release No. 9856 (Nov. 10, 1972), 37 Fed. Reg. 25224 (Nov. 29, 1972).
6 For example, one blockchain forensic analysis firm estimated that approximately $1.7 billion worth of bitcoin and other digital assets had been stolen in 2018, of which approximately $950 million resulted from cyberattacks on bitcoin trading platforms. The estimate of total losses in 2018 is 3.6 times higher than the estimate of such losses in 2017. See CipherTrace, Cryptocurrency Anti-Money Laundering Report, 2018 Q4, at 3 (Jan. 2019) (available at: https://ciphertrace.com/crypto-aml-report-2018q4/).
7 Firms can discuss with FINRA whether a contemplated change in business operations such as engaging in digital asset securities activities may require the filing of a CMA through the materiality consultation process.
8 These business models and transactions must comply with other provisions of the securities laws or regulations. The Staffs offer no views about whether such business models would be in compliance with other securities laws or regulations.
9 Entities that perform functions to facilitate the clearance and settlement of transactions in digital asset securities may be required to register as a clearing agency under Section 17A of the Exchange Act. See 15 U.S.C. 78q-1.
10 See, e.g., Statement on Digital Asset Securities Issuance and Trading, Division of Corporation Finance, Division of Investment Management, and Division of Trading and Markets, Commission (Nov. 16, 2018) (available at: https://www.sec.gov/news/public-statement/digital-asset-securites-issuuance-and-trading); see also e.g., Engaging on Non-DVP Custodial Practices and Digital Assets, letter issued by staff, Division of Investment Management, Commission, dated Mar. 12, 2019 (available at: https://www.sec.gov/investment/engaging-non-dvp-custodial-practices-and-digital-assets).
11 See Financial Responsibility Rules for Broker-Dealers, Exchange Act Release No. 70072 (July 30, 2013), 78 Fed. Reg. 51824, 51826 (Aug. 21, 2013). In addition, if the broker-dealer is liquidated in a formal proceeding under the Securities Investor Protection Act of 1970 (“SIPA”), the securities and cash held by the broker-dealer for its customers would be isolated and readily identifiable as “customer property” and, consequently, available to be distributed to customers ahead of other creditors. Id.
12 See 15 U.S.C. 78fff-1 (setting forth the powers and duties of a SIPA trustee).
13 See paragraphs (b) and (c) of Rule 15c3-3. An entity’s designation as a good control location is based, in part, on its ability to maintain exclusive control over customer securities. See, e.g., paragraph (c)(5) of Rule 15c3-3 (deeming a “bank” as defined in Section 3(a)(6) of the Exchange Act to be a good control location so long as, among other things, the bank has acknowledged that customer securities “are not subject to any right, charge, security interest, lien or claim of any kind in favor of a bank or any person claiming through the bank” and the securities are in the custody or control of the bank).
14 See paragraphs (c)(1) and (c)(5) of Rule 15c3-3.
15 The Commission often receives applications under paragraph (c)(7) of Rule 15c3-3 to designate an issuer or the transfer agent of various types of uncertificated securities as a control location. The Division has delegated authority to “find and designate as control locations for purposes of Rule 15c3-3(c)(7) [under the Exchange Act] certain broker-dealer accounts which are adequate for the protection of customer securities.” See 17 CFR 200.30-3(a)(10)(i). The Commission has stated that mutual funds in particular may be held at the issuer or the issuer’s transfer agent. See, e.g., Broker-Dealer Reports, Exchange Act Release No. 70073 (July 30, 2013), 78 Fed. Reg. 51910, 51951 (Aug. 21, 2013) (stating that “[g]enerally, mutual funds issue securities only in book-entry form. This means that the ownership of securities is not reflected on a certificate that can be transferred but rather through a journal entry on the books of the issuer maintained by the issuer’s transfer agent. A broker-dealer that holds mutual funds for customers generally holds them in the broker-dealer’s name on the books of the mutual fund”). See also Form Custody for Broker-Dealers, 17 CFR 249.639 (providing broker-dealers with a field to indicate that they custody mutual fund securities with a transfer agent). The Division has also previously issued no-action letters regarding the maintenance of certain other uncertificated securities at the transfer agent. See, e.g., letter to Fantex Brokerage Services, LLC from Mark M. Attar, Senior Special Counsel, Division of Trading and Markets, Commission, dated Dec. 19, 2014 (providing that the staff would not recommend enforcement action if a broker-dealer treats a transfer agent for uncertificated securities as a good control location, under certain circumstances). These prior no-action letters do not address whether blockchain or distributed ledger technology, in connection with the maintenance of the single master security holder list, establishes control of uncertificated securities by the issuer (or transfer agent).
16 See, e.g., paragraph (d) of Rule 15c3-3 (requiring that, not later than the next business day, a broker-dealer, as of the close of the preceding business day, shall determine the quantity of fully paid securities and excess margin securities in its possession or control and the quantity of such securities not in its possession or control).
17 Cf. supra note 13.
18 See generally Rules 17a-3, 17a-4, and 17a-5.
19 See paragraph (a)(2) of Rule 17a-3.
20 See paragraph (a)(5) of Rule 17a-3.
21 See generally Rule 17a-5.
22 See paragraph (d)(2)(ii) of Rule 17a-5.
23 See generally PCAOB Auditing Standard 1105, Audit Evidence (describing sufficient appropriate audit evidence and stating that audit evidence consists of information that supports and corroborates management’s assertions regarding the financial statements and information that contradicts such assertions).
24 The SIPA definition of “security” is different than the federal securities laws definitions. See 15 U.S.C. 78lll(14) (excluding from the SIPA definition of “security” an investment contract or interest that is not the subject of a registration statement with the Commission pursuant to the provisions of the Securities Act of 1933). This means there may be digital assets that are: (1) securities under the federal securities laws and SIPA, and thus are protected by SIPA; (2) securities under the federal securities laws, but not under SIPA, and thus not protected by SIPA; or (3) not securities under the federal securities laws and therefore not protected by SIPA.
25 If a broker-dealer holds securities that are not protected by SIPA, the broker-dealer must nevertheless comply with the physical possession or control requirements under Rule 15c3-3 with respect to those securities.
26 Generally, in a SIPA liquidation, assets not included in customer property (other than customer name securities) are liquidated and paid out to general creditors on a pro rata basis. See 15 U.S.C. 78fff-2(c); 15 U.S.C. 78fff(b).
27 See supra note 16.
28 See paragraph (c)(7) of Rule 15c3-3.
submitted by godsslave to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Subreddit Stats: Bitcoin top posts from 2017-01-09 to 2017-02-08 00:18 PDT

Period: 29.84 days
Submissions Comments
Total 999 46557
Rate (per day) 33.48 1507.53
Unique Redditors 653 6643
Combined Score 110856 177455

Top Submitters' Top Submissions

  1. 3932 points, 2 submissions: tuqqs
    1. Clearly not mainstream yet (2808 points, 104 comments)
    2. what it'll look like, when it happens (1124 points, 195 comments)
  2. 3593 points, 19 submissions: helmsk
    1. Countdown: Bitcoin Will Be a Legal Method of Payment in Japan in Two Months (2316 points, 151 comments)
    2. Europe Lays Out Roadmap to Restrict Payments in Cash and Cryptocurrencies (317 points, 102 comments)
    3. Polish Bitcoin Adoption Escalating with Strong Ecosystem (86 points, 4 comments)
    4. Why South Korean Bitcoin Adoption Could Outpace Most Other Countries This Year (74 points, 3 comments)
    5. Pakistan Set to Become a Major Bitcoin Hub (72 points, 49 comments)
    6. UAE Did Not Ban Bitcoin (72 points, 2 comments)
    7. Europe Committed to Tightening Digital Currency Rules by End of 2017 (71 points, 23 comments)
    8. How to Start Your Own Bitcoin ATM Business (67 points, 15 comments)
    9. Coincheck's Growth Reveals Surging Japanese Bitcoin Trade (62 points, 8 comments)
    10. How Trump's Wall and Remittance Tax Could Give Bitcoin a Boost (60 points, 23 comments)
  3. 3177 points, 2 submissions: futureofeverything
    1. "R.I.P. Bitcoin. It's Time to Move On"....funny billboard driving around in Miami (3136 points, 227 comments)
    2. Why Venezuela's Currency Crisis Is A Case Study For Bitcoin (41 points, 1 comment)
  4. 2577 points, 7 submissions: Pizpie
    1. Welcome to Bitcoin, everyone. Don't worry, he'll recover. (1353 points, 155 comments)
    2. Breaking: Huobi & BTCC stopped margin trading, OKc leverage only 1x, finally no more fake BTC generated by exchange (485 points, 160 comments)
    3. Breaking: Bitcoin exchange Coinbase receives New York BitLicense (242 points, 55 comments)
    4. Canada Goose is thinking about accepting Bitcoin - Let them know what you think! (191 points, 49 comments)
    5. Confirmed: Huobi reactivates margin trading, with a limit of 100k CNY instead of 10 million CNY. (160 points, 79 comments)
    6. BREAKING: Huobi official announcement: We are considering charging trading fees. (80 points, 25 comments)
    7. Breaking: PBOC strikes again - Lending disabled on BTCC (66 points, 70 comments)
  5. 1941 points, 1 submission: bahatassafus
    1. Internet Archive: $3000 donated anonymously to the @internetarchive in bitcoin just now. Made our day! Thank you! (1941 points, 31 comments)
  6. 1338 points, 1 submission: kynek99
    1. Deutsche Bank - More than $10 billion in transactions never appeared on the books. That's why banksters don't want to use public blockchains. (1338 points, 96 comments)
  7. 1294 points, 1 submission: umbawumpa
    1. Julian Assange just used the current block hash as proof-of-not-prerecorded-interview in his AMA (1294 points, 182 comments)
  8. 1272 points, 2 submissions: Butt_Cheek_Spreader
    1. When you ride the bitcoin rally (1189 points, 204 comments)
    2. OKcoin and Huobi provided margin trading that violated rules resulting in abnormal price and fluctuations. (83 points, 28 comments)
  9. 1258 points, 4 submissions: dan_from_san_diego
    1. I started mining bitcoin in the desert. Here's some of what I have learned. (516 points, 575 comments)
    2. Chase is closing my account due to bitcoin purchases. Nice. (478 points, 410 comments)
    3. Here are some pictures of the solar greenhouse in the desert I am using to mine bitcoin. (140 points, 303 comments)
    4. Man... Brian Kelly from CNBC really fell hard for bitcoin. I like that! (124 points, 27 comments)
  10. 1250 points, 10 submissions: PoCaMiQu
    1. Can we fucking acknowledge that the Chinese Government just legitimized bitcoin? (604 points, 154 comments)
    2. WTF Huffington Post <---Fake News: "Bitcoin Plummets On Yuan Reversal" (218 points, 71 comments)
    3. This is what I like to see when checking daily's finances. (122 points, 22 comments)
    4. Beautiful balance (71 points, 13 comments)
    5. Reminder: Bitcoin's immutability is not only not a bug, but its main feature. Scalability comes secondary to it. (44 points, 20 comments)
    6. Bitcoin Price Gets Ready to Factor In Winklevoss Bitcoin ETF Approval (43 points, 24 comments)
    7. Paxful - a global leader in peer-to-peer bitcoin technology - has launched a new widget, allowing anyone to buy bitcoin worldwide instantly with over 300 ways to pay. (41 points, 34 comments)
    8. Scaling Revisited: What If Bitcoin's Big 'Problem' is Its Great Strength? (38 points, 16 comments)
    9. Flashback to the 90's: Interviewer asks Fed Chair "What is Blockchain?" (37 points, 21 comments)
    10. It seems all those FUD mongers were wrong when they predicted the price would crash without China's "liquidity" (32 points, 13 comments)
  11. 1155 points, 16 submissions: eragmus
    1. Ben Davenport (BitGo CTO): "Centralization of mining has led to some miners thinking they're in charge of Bitcoin. They forgot where Bitcoin's value comes from." (169 points, 112 comments)
    2. [Twitter Poll] Charlie Lee (Director of Engineering @ Coinbase): "What's the most important feature of Bitcoin that we must not sacrifice? Decentralization, Security, Low fees, Global payments" (116 points, 62 comments)
    3. Hernz: "Did you know you can get paid to help spread misinformation? -birds dot bitcoin dot com-" (hosted by Roger Ver) (106 points, 38 comments)
    4. The Passion of 'Bitcoin Jesus': How The Blockchain's Most Beloved Investor Became its Most Polarizing (101 points, 52 comments)
    5. Jonas Nick: "MimbleWimble blockchain (non-interactive coinjoin + pruning) may be able to support Lightning" / ref: Andrew Poelstra @ lists.launchpad.net/mimblewimble/msg00022.html (96 points, 19 comments)
    6. Bitcoin Core - IRC Meeting Summary (January 19, 2016) (83 points, 16 comments)
    7. Bitcoin Core - IRC Meeting Summary (January 12, 2016) (68 points, 7 comments)
    8. WhalePanda: "Analyzed @rogerkver's 'Cry Wolf' tactic on censorship on /bitcoin." (59 points, 16 comments)
    9. Inside MAST: The Little-Known Plan to Advance Bitcoin Smart Contracts (52 points, 8 comments)
    10. Bitcoin Core - IRC Meeting Summary (January 5, 2016) (51 points, 2 comments)
  12. 1155 points, 14 submissions: castom
    1. Russian Authorities: Bitcoin Poses No Threat, Won’t Be Banned (575 points, 80 comments)
    2. Bitcoin Goes to Washington - Trump May Hire More Digital Currency Leaders (86 points, 50 comments)
    3. With Another $30 Million Investment, BitFury becomes the Highest-funded Bitcoin Company (80 points, 3 comments)
    4. Nigeria's Bitcoin Interest Unwavering Despite Government Crackdown (64 points, 3 comments)
    5. German TV Calls Bitcoin "Digital Gold" (46 points, 3 comments)
    6. A Town in Illinois Just Announced It's Holding a Bitcoin Sale (46 points, 9 comments)
    7. Coinbase CEO: IRS Battle Could Cost Startup $1 Million (43 points, 15 comments)
    8. Xapo Now Licensed to Operate from Switzerland (39 points, 2 comments)
    9. Bitcoin Payments Startup BitPesa Raises $2.5 Million (32 points, 0 comments)
    10. Lawsuit Accuses Bitcoin ATM Owner of Smashing Competing Machines With Hammers (31 points, 18 comments)
  13. 1140 points, 4 submissions: bdd4
    1. sigh (859 points, 189 comments)
    2. As Predicted. 🙄 PBoC (137 points, 86 comments)
    3. Friendly Reminder: Bitcoin is still up 2.6% for the last 30 days (94 points, 8 comments)
    4. Dead Man's Switch for HODLers (50 points, 84 comments)
  14. 1104 points, 3 submissions: Vaultoro
    1. "Great minds discuss ideas; average minds discuss events; small minds discuss people." can we please stop this culture of bashing or lifting cults of personality and get back to science? (807 points, 143 comments)
    2. The house of Nakamoto in the main shopping strip of Vienna gets massive new bitcoin logo signage 2 stories big, 4 times 4 meters of epic propaganda! (265 points, 32 comments)
    3. I saw a post here that little snitch takes bitcoin. I just purchased a copy! Great little app and well worth 30 bucks. (32 points, 9 comments)
  15. 1088 points, 3 submissions: Carlscrazyidea
    1. You can now buy Bitcoin from any 7-11 in the Philippines! (1021 points, 136 comments)
    2. What is my impact as a Bitcoin holder? (41 points, 45 comments)
    3. I am a Hodling noob who still has a lot of Hodling work to do! (26 points, 30 comments)
  16. 1060 points, 7 submissions: Bitcohen
    1. Mercedes Buys Bitcoin Service Provider in 'Digitization Strategy' (518 points, 70 comments)
    2. Mercedes-Benz cars are now being sold for Bitcoin in Venezuela (348 points, 68 comments)
    3. Dutch Pirate Party pays 11,250 Euro deposit in Bitcoin to Electoral Council (68 points, 9 comments)
    4. Amir Taaki & Cody Wilson's Bitcoin support described by film critic as “defense of criminality” at Sundance Film Festival 2017 (44 points, 13 comments)
    5. Russia's Kaliningrad May Trial 'Legal' Bitcoin, Launch Exchange (31 points, 2 comments)
    6. Bitcurex Owner 'Disappears' After Failing to Return 2,300 BTC (26 points, 2 comments)
    7. Liverpool Launches Own Digital Currency Based on Bitcoin's Blockchain Tech - Attracts 3,000 Users in First Month (25 points, 1 comment)
  17. 1009 points, 1 submission: worstkeptsecrets
    1. Bitcoin on NewEgg. 3rd option! Ahead of Credit Card and PayPal! #ITSHAPPENING (1009 points, 92 comments)
  18. 975 points, 1 submission: SooieSide
    1. You can't get to the moon on a roller coaster. (975 points, 73 comments)
  19. 941 points, 4 submissions: Logical007
    1. UPDATE: Nearly all of Circle's 5 Star Ratings have disappeared today for their latest version (Jan 5th). A stark difference to what we saw earlier, looks like action was taken. (633 points, 177 comments)
    2. Bloomberg: Wyre CEO: "Bitcoin is a good investment for everyone." (VIDEO (188 points, 13 comments)
    3. Bitcoin isn't 'real money'. Google, you need to work on your search results. (85 points, 38 comments)
    4. Coinbase, please fix your merchant invoices on iOS 10. They haven't worked properly for months (while BitPay's work perfectly). Details and screenshot inside. (35 points, 5 comments)
  20. 896 points, 1 submission: amendment64
    1. Just paid 23 cents on a $3.74 transaction. When does it end? $1.00 per transaction? $2? $5? I don't wanna stop using this peer to peer currency, but I'm fast being priced out of it. (896 points, 1017 comments)
  21. 884 points, 2 submissions: theswapman
    1. Bitcoiner interrupts Shia LaBeouf's "He Will Not Divide Us" stream with chant that Bitcoin Will Unite Us! (456 points, 204 comments)
    2. PSA: Xapo will freeze your bitcoin and demand documents AFTER you have deposited (428 points, 101 comments)
  22. 820 points, 3 submissions: MorrisMustang
    1. South Florida Distillers uses heat from bitcoin mining to accelerate rum barrel aging! (709 points, 66 comments)
    2. "See, bitcoin is down 9.75% over the past month...I told you it crashed..." says my wife (72 points, 64 comments)
    3. EthereRum by South Florida Distillers, the worlds first rum distilled from mining heat. Stayed tuned for more details. (39 points, 21 comments)
  23. 799 points, 5 submissions: finalhedge
    1. Patrick Byrne (Overstock CEO) on Fox Business Channel today (288 points, 57 comments)
    2. "Sent my first instant bitcoin LN payment to a random irc user on testnet. Second-layer tech for the win!" | Justin Camarena on Twitter (250 points, 64 comments)
    3. Balaji Srinivasan (21 CEO) just deleted his whole tweet history. Heading to the FDA? (137 points, 69 comments)
    4. BARRY SILBERT'S BITCOIN INVESTMENT TRUST FILES FOR IPO (99 points, 10 comments)
    5. Bloomberg: 'Blockchain' Fans Will Have A Rude Awakening In 2017 (25 points, 2 comments)
  24. 798 points, 9 submissions: FluxSeer
    1. Gemini Introduces Zero-Confirmation Bitcoin Deposits (205 points, 69 comments)
    2. Bitcoin Mining Distribution 2012 vs. 2017 (146 points, 69 comments)
    3. When someone says Bitcoin is a ponzi/scam/etc... Send them this link. (131 points, 24 comments)
    4. Developer Release for OpenBazaar 2.0 (123 points, 45 comments)
    5. Federal Reserve Staffer Fined for Mining Bitcoins at Work (62 points, 4 comments)
    6. A Future Led by Bitcoin Unlimited is a Centralized Future (56 points, 38 comments)
    7. Blockstream joins Digital Garage to jointly develop next-generation financial technology (33 points, 15 comments)
    8. Bitcoin Matrix Wallpaper (1920x1080) (23 points, 6 comments)
    9. The ECB Explains Why Central Banks Can't Go Bankrupt (19 points, 7 comments)
  25. 796 points, 1 submission: kidblondie
    1. [AMA] I'm the woman who got pepper sprayed wearing the "Make Bitcoin Great Again" hat. (796 points, 938 comments)
  26. 709 points, 1 submission: silver_89
    1. Liftoff (709 points, 282 comments)
  27. 697 points, 2 submissions: Tfoe1399
    1. Huge shoutout to BTC.com for giving me back my money (666 points, 91 comments)
    2. So this just happened (31 points, 101 comments)
  28. 691 points, 3 submissions: jholmes91
    1. Antonopoulos Supports SegWit, Opens Doors For Lightning and TumbleBit (315 points, 112 comments)
    2. Donald Trump is Considering a Bitcoin Entrepreneur to Lead the FDA (220 points, 137 comments)
    3. Japanese Internet Giant GMO Announces Entrance to Bitcoin Wallet Market (156 points, 14 comments)
  29. 688 points, 2 submissions: belcher_
    1. bitcoin.com loses 13.2BTC trying to fork the network: Untested and buggy BU creates an oversized block, Many BU node banned, the HF fails (543 points, 428 comments)
    2. Segwit talk by Pieter Wuille. 25 minutes talk time (145 points, 21 comments)
  30. 673 points, 9 submissions: Lite_Coin_Guy
    1. Litecoin Moves to Adopt Bitcoin's SegWit Scaling Upgrade (155 points, 86 comments)
    2. If Bitcoin ETF approval ignites speculative rush, doesn't that prove intense latent demand, blocked only by the SEC? (120 points, 22 comments)
    3. Big miners are free to create their Unlimited coin, but if they try to kill Bitcoin it will resist censorship and route around it. (108 points, 103 comments)
    4. What is money? (93 points, 56 comments)
    5. Charlie Shrems next jail time? (50 points, 15 comments)
    6. In 1996 they said the Internet was in need of a "killer app". In 2016, they said #Bitcoin needed a "killer app", too. (39 points, 17 comments)
    7. Introduction to Bitcoin & Blockchains (38 points, 5 comments)
    8. Evaporative Two-Phase Immersion Cooling (Bitfury) (37 points, 6 comments)
    9. Crypto '98 Rump Session- Hal Finney (33 points, 8 comments)
  31. 635 points, 8 submissions: olivercarding
    1. Bitcoin Has Many Fans at Amazon According to Purse CEO Andrew Lee (152 points, 39 comments)
    2. Bitcoin is Closing in On Its Transaction Capacity Limit, For Real This Time (110 points, 155 comments)
    3. The Founder of India-Based Bitcoin Mining Pool GBMiners is Running a Ponzi Scheme (105 points, 50 comments)
    4. How Bitcoin Is Disrupting The Online Gambling Industry (98 points, 74 comments)
    5. Report Estimates There are More Than 10 Million Bitcoin Holders Worldwide (91 points, 54 comments)
    6. Blockchain Announces Expansion in Middle East; Partners with Dubai Government (32 points, 7 comments)
    7. 3 Teams Receive Funding from $1.2 Million Bitcoin Development Grant, More Funds Incoming (27 points, 7 comments)
    8. Digital Garage and Blockstream Collaborate on New Blockchain Solutions for Japanese Market (20 points, 0 comments)
  32. 630 points, 1 submission: classna
    1. FOMO-ing right now (630 points, 85 comments)
  33. 621 points, 7 submissions: _smudger_
    1. Bitcoin: Why It Now Belongs in Every Portfolio (206 points, 33 comments)
    2. Bitcoin ETF may attract $300 million in the first week, says Needham & company (205 points, 103 comments)
    3. It's time to start thinking about denominating Bitcoins in mBTC permanently. Might be the last time to buy some for less than a dollar each! (82 points, 127 comments)
    4. Big China bitcoin exchange says no government pressure on outflows (46 points, 6 comments)
    5. New weekly record in Local Bitcoin volumes plus new highs in Canada, Colombia, Denmark, Saudi Arabia, Thailand and Venezuela (36 points, 1 comment)
    6. Despite the recent drop the price is hitting new records when averaged over a year (24 points, 10 comments)
    7. Press Release: CD Key retailer CJS CD Keys now Accepting Bitcoin (22 points, 3 comments)
  34. 597 points, 1 submission: arichnad
    1. mac has the new bitcoin Unicode character already! (597 points, 81 comments)
  35. 594 points, 1 submission: drvox1600
    1. Bitcoin just hit $1000 USD! :D (594 points, 147 comments)
  36. 573 points, 4 submissions: bitcoinglobe
    1. Japanese internet giant, GMO, entering bitcoin exchange and wallet markets (451 points, 26 comments)
    2. Abra overview (52 points, 22 comments)
    3. Japan Could See 20,000 Bitcoin Accepting Merchants in 2017 - CryptoCoinsNews (44 points, 5 comments)
    4. Bitcoin is gold with a teleporter (26 points, 2 comments)
  37. 567 points, 9 submissions: PrimeParticle
    1. "Introduction to Bitcoin" - Andreas Antonopoulos (Probably one of the best videos for introducing bitcoin). (131 points, 7 comments)
    2. Venezuela's currency now worth so little shopkeepers weigh vast piles of notes instead of counting them (118 points, 42 comments)
    3. Coins are cheaper in China by $30 to $50 dollars for the first time in a long time, that means... (92 points, 87 comments)
    4. Andreas Antonopoulos - The Death of Money | London Real (57 points, 1 comment)
    5. Abra: Bitcoin To Fiat Withdrawals At Tellers Globally! - 2017 North American Bitcoin Conference (47 points, 14 comments)
    6. Remember that you can use CPFP or RBF to get your transactions confirmed faster. (45 points, 46 comments)
    7. Bitcoin Q&A: The Lightning Network & Rootstock (30 points, 1 comment)
    8. Public Perception of Bitcoin is Slowly Shifting Amid Global Financial Turmoil (25 points, 1 comment)
    9. Bitcoin is shrugging off some big news of out of China (22 points, 1 comment)
  38. 561 points, 1 submission: kevsudos
    1. Bitcoin Hodlers Be Like........ (561 points, 96 comments)
  39. 543 points, 1 submission: turn-down-for-what
    1. $1,000! (543 points, 49 comments)
  40. 539 points, 1 submission: BlahYourHamster
    1. [META] Can we use the Bitcoin Rollercoster Guy as the upvote and downvote arrows? (539 points, 49 comments)
  41. 538 points, 7 submissions: themetalfriend
    1. The real superhero (210 points, 15 comments)
    2. Countries where you can survive on Bitcoin (map) (76 points, 88 comments)
    3. How practical is it to live on Bitcoin: historical progress (gif) (63 points, 40 comments)
    4. Among the countries with the strongest Bitcoin adoption: Slovenia, Finland, Singapore, Hong Kong, Canada, Switzerland (63 points, 13 comments)
    5. Long-term bitcoiner checking this sub (51 points, 9 comments)
    6. The complete list of the factors that influence the value of Bitcoin (45 points, 29 comments)
    7. Will Bitcoin work on Mars? (30 points, 41 comments)
  42. 521 points, 2 submissions: roasbeef
    1. Announcing the Alpha Release of the Lightning Network Daemon! (427 points, 152 comments)
    2. Setting up and Testing LND with the Testnet Lightning Faucet (94 points, 7 comments)
  43. 506 points, 1 submission: ToTheMoonGuy
    1. Super Bowl Bitcoin Lady (506 points, 37 comments)
  44. 484 points, 1 submission: ssienk117
    1. My new Phone background. Thanks u/SooieSide/ (484 points, 30 comments)
  45. 472 points, 2 submissions: Wingsuit
    1. I think duck duck go should improve their decimal accuracy (386 points, 41 comments)
    2. Bitcoin achieves leetness in Australia (86 points, 12 comments)
  46. 470 points, 1 submission: robertgenito
    1. The REAL good ol' days of bitcoin... (470 points, 103 comments)
  47. 444 points, 1 submission: loserkids
    1. Bitcoin saved my ass in South East Asia (444 points, 115 comments)
  48. 441 points, 1 submission: boyber
    1. LibreTaxi, free and open source UbeLyft alternative to connect passengers and drivers - bitcoin integration on the way! (441 points, 94 comments)

Top Commenters

  1. nullc (2659 points, 215 comments)
  2. kidblondie (2127 points, 89 comments)
  3. BashCo (1530 points, 293 comments)
  4. dellintelbitcoin (1400 points, 372 comments)
  5. smartfbrankings (1141 points, 265 comments)
  6. belcher_ (1031 points, 149 comments)
  7. Frogolocalypse (986 points, 322 comments)
  8. dan_from_san_diego (949 points, 554 comments)
  9. Cryptolution (851 points, 226 comments)
  10. Vaultoro (822 points, 100 comments)
  11. thieflar (792 points, 231 comments)
  12. Lite_Coin_Guy (748 points, 219 comments)
  13. Cryptoconomy (728 points, 134 comments)
  14. Coinosphere (723 points, 282 comments)
  15. luke-jr (718 points, 141 comments)
  16. waxwing (707 points, 117 comments)
  17. bitsteiner (658 points, 157 comments)
  18. BitttBurger (646 points, 157 comments)
  19. shesek1 (607 points, 132 comments)
  20. pb1x (595 points, 76 comments)
  21. jratcliff63367 (591 points, 45 comments)
  22. supermari0 (587 points, 131 comments)
  23. bitusher (581 points, 96 comments)
  24. 4n4n4 (576 points, 79 comments)
  25. coinjaf (562 points, 225 comments)
  26. glockbtc (541 points, 168 comments)
  27. 45sbvad (539 points, 102 comments)
  28. killerstorm (536 points, 119 comments)
  29. adam3us (527 points, 66 comments)
  30. maaku7 (527 points, 63 comments)
  31. nopara73 (523 points, 120 comments)
  32. phor2zero (499 points, 66 comments)
  33. PrimeParticle (496 points, 108 comments)
  34. sreaka (495 points, 155 comments)
  35. jonny1000 (488 points, 98 comments)
  36. CoinCadence (487 points, 77 comments)
  37. SatoshisCat (480 points, 150 comments)
  38. petertodd (473 points, 24 comments)
  39. spoonfednonsense (472 points, 126 comments)
  40. Hitchslappy (472 points, 102 comments)
  41. albuminvasion (466 points, 84 comments)
  42. Taek42 (456 points, 44 comments)
  43. chrisrico (452 points, 87 comments)
  44. AnonymousRev (451 points, 115 comments)
  45. the_bob (443 points, 114 comments)
  46. satoshicoin (438 points, 65 comments)
  47. Riiume (434 points, 83 comments)
  48. exab (430 points, 125 comments)
  49. jimmajamma (422 points, 141 comments)
  50. brg444 (421 points, 69 comments)

Top Submissions

  1. "R.I.P. Bitcoin. It's Time to Move On"....funny billboard driving around in Miami by futureofeverything (3136 points, 227 comments)
  2. Clearly not mainstream yet by tuqqs (2808 points, 104 comments)
  3. Countdown: Bitcoin Will Be a Legal Method of Payment in Japan in Two Months by helmsk (2316 points, 151 comments)
  4. Internet Archive: $3000 donated anonymously to the @internetarchive in bitcoin just now. Made our day! Thank you! by bahatassafus (1941 points, 31 comments)
  5. Welcome to Bitcoin, everyone. Don't worry, he'll recover. by Pizpie (1353 points, 155 comments)
  6. Deutsche Bank - More than $10 billion in transactions never appeared on the books. That's why banksters don't want to use public blockchains. by kynek99 (1338 points, 96 comments)
  7. Julian Assange just used the current block hash as proof-of-not-prerecorded-interview in his AMA by umbawumpa (1294 points, 182 comments)
  8. When you ride the bitcoin rally by Butt_Cheek_Spreader (1189 points, 204 comments)
  9. what it'll look like, when it happens by tuqqs (1124 points, 195 comments)
  10. You can now buy Bitcoin from any 7-11 in the Philippines! by Carlscrazyidea (1021 points, 136 comments)

Top Comments

  1. 380 points: Tyatku's comment in When you ride the bitcoin rally
  2. 340 points: Vaultoro's comment in Just paid 23 cents on a $3.74 transaction. When does it end? $1.00 per transaction? $2? $5? I don't wanna stop using this peer to peer currency, but I'm fast being priced out of it.
  3. 323 points: jamesdpitley's comment in "R.I.P. Bitcoin. It's Time to Move On"....funny billboard driving around in Miami
  4. 290 points: Clutch70's comment in Clearly not mainstream yet
  5. 212 points: BitcoinDreamland's comment in South Florida Distillers uses heat from bitcoin mining to accelerate rum barrel aging!
  6. 206 points: bitpotluck's comment in FOMO-ing right now
  7. 195 points: howardkinsd's comment in Clearly not mainstream yet
  8. 182 points: beloboi's comment in "R.I.P. Bitcoin. It's Time to Move On"....funny billboard driving around in Miami
  9. 181 points: BattleChimp's comment in "R.I.P. Bitcoin. It's Time to Move On"....funny billboard driving around in Miami
  10. 179 points: kidblondie's comment in [AMA] I'm the woman who got pepper sprayed wearing the "Make Bitcoin Great Again" hat.
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The website features links to a bitcoin wallet, tutorials on how to use bitcoin, and other tools that help you navigate the world of bitcoin. Bitcoin.com is also one of the biggest news media outlets in the cryptosphere today. All news articles can be found at news.bitcoin.com.Today, Bitcoin.com is registered in Saint Kitts and Nevis under Roger Ver’s name. Roger Ver is also listed as the ... Bitcoin, the virtual currency used by savvy techies and online black market traders, has faded from the public eye in recent months. But investor and cryptocurrency expert Adam Draper says bitcoin ... Bitcoin is being monitored by a US government concerned that terrorists could develop a similar virtual currency. Leah McGrath Goodman looks at the factors that could hamper the US’s ability to ... Because of virtual currency’s unique features, namely its lack of government backing, it falls within a regulatory gray area in many foreign jurisdictions. Therefore, many systems do not identify or report suspicious transactions, fail to retain customer records, and often resist cooperation with law enforcement. What Is Bitcoin (BTC)? Bitcoin is a decentralized cryptocurrency originally described in a 2008 whitepaper by a person, or group of people, using the alias Satoshi Nakamoto.It was launched soon after, in January 2009. Bitcoin is a peer-to-peer online currency, meaning that all transactions happen directly between equal, independent network participants, without the need for any intermediary to ...

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Bitcoin Virtual Currency for Dummies: Complete Whats; Hows ...

There are more than 2000 cryptocurrencies since blockchain has given life to Bitcoin. They all have their own features and preferences. Why there are so many... Susan Athey explains how Bitcoin works, and why virtual digital currency might change the way consumers and financial institutions do business. Athey is the ... Similar concept: http://www.zyxaw.com/2007/09/second-life-3d-online-digital-world.html at http://www.zyxaw.com http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2013/04/wh... Susan Athey: The Economics of Bitcoin & Virtual Currency - Duration: 32:44. Stanford Graduate School of Business 64,147 views. 32:44. The God Debate II: Harris vs. Craig - Duration: 2:06:55 ... This Playlist is for the general public - those brand new to the idea of "Virtual Currencies" - as well as for Bitcoin enthusiasts who are just becoming familiar with VeriCoin and the impact of ...

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