The Number Zero and Bitcoin. Satoshi gave the world ...

Quantum-Proof Encryption?

Safing team -
What are your thoughts on so-called quantum-proof encryption?
  1. Is it possible?
  2. Are you planning on making it at some point?
  3. This would put you on the map.
Google has let slip recently that they have a quantum computer. Many people believe it's "not there yet", and won't be for a long time.
Here's a different perspective.
Most people don't understand what quantum computers are. They probably just think it's next-gen or something harmless like that, because they simply don't have a category for it.
However, for those who do understand what it is - in my case, I think I kind of understand it - find its implications completely terrifying and overwhelming.
Emotions are a funny thing. If I were to take the average Joe on the street and explain to them about how data tracking works, they'd be absolutely horrified.
For example, I could sit someone down and explain to them about how Google is invisibly present on nearly every website they visit. I could demonstrate this using uMatrix in real time. "Look! Here they are. (Click to the next website.) Here they are. (Click to the next website.) Here they are again. (Click.) Again."
And when they first realize this, they are horrified. I've seen it over and over again, because I tell anyone who will listen. They are so horrified, in fact, that their defense mechanisms kick in. The most common defense mechanism is to simply shut it off and forget it. They'll say, "Oh well, what can I do about it? Who cares what I buy on Amazon? I have nothing to hide. I'm boring. I don't do drugs, I'm not having an affair, I don't break the law."
But some have a different defense mechanism. They seek to understand it, in order to protect themselves. Here's a threat, so I have to "know thy enemy". These are the privacy geeks, who dive into this head first. You can see them on the privacy subs. They're trying to wrap their heads around it.
But eventually, something happens to them too. Eventually, they realize that the problem is far worse than even their fears imagined. They become paranoid and take extreme measures. Some go very far down this road.
Eventually, the paranoia leaves them exhausted and they reach their limit. They're spending half their waking moments studying it, following it, trying to understand it, trying to set their devices up with the latest and greatest thing that they think will protect them.
The more stable among them eventually realize that their paranoia is toxic, and they realize that they have to strike a balance. They know they have to begin to pick their battles and make some compromises. They realize their "enemy" is too powerful for them.
There is one thing, however, that people have come to trust. Encryption. If their traffic is encrypted, they "know" it's "safe". VPNs. The Tor browser and its layers of encryption.
But quantum computers could change that. I understand quantum computers like this...
Imagine a child at a sit-down restaurant with a kids' menu. On the back of that kids' menu is a maze. They try out one path, it reaches a dead end. So they go back and try a different path, but that too is a dead end. They keep trying paths until they finally get to the end of the maze.
Computers perform calculations that work similarly to the maze. They try one solution, then another, then another, then another, until finally, they get the solution. The attempts are linear: one solution attempt after another. Think of movies where they depict a computer trying to break a password. They show all the characters in the password, and they're flashing through all possible characters. Then suddenly, one of the characters stops flashing. That character is a T. The next one suddenly stops, and that's a 4. On and on it goes, until all the characters are locked in place.
This is how Bitcoin mining works, for example. It takes a LOT of processing power to complete a calculation that produces one Bitcoin. This helps control the supply of Bitcoins. (I wonder who's collecting these solutions?)
But a quantum computer doesn't work like that. It's not linear. A quantum computer can attempt every possible solution at once. In the maze, it can attempt every possible path at once. It can crack even a very long, very complex password instantly. It can mine a Bitcoin in a moment. Snap your fingers. Bitcoin. Snap your fingers again. Another Bitcoin. One computer. Nearly instantaneously.
A quantum computer could be powerful enough to break encryption in real time, no matter how complex. This capability is so powerful it blows the mind. And then there's DNA-based processors, which can multiply, which also allows them to try every solution at once. It just multiplies as many times as necessary. If quantum computers are finite, DNA computers could theoretically be infinite. I think. (But I won't pretend to totally grasp what we're talking about here.)
A quantum-based or DNA-based laptop could theoretically be more powerful than all the processors in the entire world on every computer, including super computers and all the servers, combined.
I have brought this up in privacy forums. The standard, defense-mechanism-based answer is, "But that's YEARS away! The capability just isn't there yet! Look at what the publicly-available information says about it!"
But we're talking about Google. They have secrets, don't they? They're invisibly present on almost every website we visit. Their power stems from the fact that most people have no idea that that's true. How it all works is proprietary. There's a lot of guessing going on. No one knows for sure.
But if Google has ANY secrets at all, wouldn't they keep the capabilities of their quantum computer secret? Isn't it kind of surprising that the public knows (and has already forgotten) that Google has a functioning quantum computer? So does IBM. What capabilities do these possess, which the public knows nothing about? I assume the capability is greater than the public knows.
Right now, Google is "cooperating" with China on AI. It is publicly known that China has made tremendous advances in quantum computing. Connect the dots.
A quantum computer, fully functioning, could break encryption in real time. With the resources Google has, especially when combined with the resources of the Chinese government, imagine what they could do. Google already has all the data. They could decrypt it ALL. And they could share it with the Chinese government, who I'm sure would be willing to pay any price for it.
If Google is willing to cooperate on AI with China, where's their red-line as a company? What line will they say, "Oh no, we wouldn't do that. It would be unethical." China has actual concentration camps. Just like the Nazis once did. They put Muslims there. They force people to have abortions, repress religions, and even force some people to donate their organs. At least, there seems to be solid evidence that these things are occurring. This is a country ruled by sociopaths who seek to take over the world.
Why would anyone ever trust Google to "don't be evil", when clearly they have no ethical scruples whatsoever? Google, as a company, is a sociopath. Completely heartless. They are willing to exploit people in secret and cooperate with the Chinese communist party and their military. Why? To make money. If that's true, what else would they be willing to do?
I don't know if there is or even could be any such thing as quantum-proof encryption. I'm extremely skeptical, personally. But if it does exist, or could exist, then we need it. And we need it like 10 years ago.
So - does it exist? Could it exist? Could SPN employ it?
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The Retrospect and Prospect of the Crypto Economy——The Development and Evolution of the Consensus Mechanism (Three)

The Retrospect and Prospect of the Crypto Economy——The Development and Evolution of the Consensus Mechanism (Three)

https://preview.redd.it/45wwtygv2rc51.png?width=567&format=png&auto=webp&s=a5f51ea3c620d478231c39e32f198eb64d801897
Foreword
The consensus mechanism is one of the important elements of the blockchain and the core rule of the normal operation of the distributed ledger. It is mainly used to solve the trust problem between people and determine who is responsible for generating new blocks and maintaining the effective unification of the system in the blockchain system. Thus, it has become an everlasting research hot topic in blockchain.
This article starts with the concept and role of the consensus mechanism. First, it enables the reader to have a preliminary understanding of the consensus mechanism as a whole; then starting with the two armies and the Byzantine general problem, the evolution of the consensus mechanism is introduced in the order of the time when the consensus mechanism is proposed; Then, it briefly introduces the current mainstream consensus mechanism from three aspects of concept, working principle and representative project, and compares the advantages and disadvantages of the mainstream consensus mechanism; finally, it gives suggestions on how to choose a consensus mechanism for blockchain projects and pointed out the possibility of the future development of the consensus mechanism.
Contents
First, concept and function of the consensus mechanism
1.1 Concept: The core rules for the normal operation of distributed ledgers
1.2 Role: Solve the trust problem and decide the generation and maintenance of new blocks
1.2.1 Used to solve the trust problem between people
1.2.2 Used to decide who is responsible for generating new blocks and maintaining effective unity in the blockchain system
1.3 Mainstream model of consensus algorithm
Second, the origin of the consensus mechanism
2.1 The two armies and the Byzantine generals
2.1.1 The two armies problem
2.1.2 The Byzantine generals problem
2.2 Development history of consensus mechanism
2.2.1 Classification of consensus mechanism
2.2.2 Development frontier of consensus mechanism
Third, Common Consensus System
Fourth, Selection of consensus mechanism and summary of current situation
4.1 How to choose a consensus mechanism that suits you
4.1.1 Determine whether the final result is important
4.1.2 Determine how fast the application process needs to be
4.1.2 Determining the degree to which the application requires for decentralization
4.1.3 Determine whether the system can be terminated
4.1.4 Select a suitable consensus algorithm after weighing the advantages and disadvantages
4.2 Future development of consensus mechanism
Last lecture review: Chapter 1 Concept and Function of Consensus Mechanism plus Chapter 2 Origin of Consensus Mechanism
Last lecture review: Chapter 3 Common Consensus Mechanisms

Chapter 3 Common Consensus Mechanisms (Part 2)
Figure 6 Summary of relatively mainstream consensus mechanisms

https://preview.redd.it/2yepvjjy2rc51.png?width=567&format=png&auto=webp&s=acaed31fa6106ac2f501fe2cb284f66bb2258a0e
Source: Hasib Anwar, "Consensus Algorithms: The Root Of The Blockchain Technology"
The picture above shows 14 relatively mainstream consensus mechanisms summarized by a geek Hasib Anwar, including PoW (Proof of Work), PoS (Proof of Stake), DPoS (Delegated Proof of Stake), LPoS (Lease Proof of Stake), PoET ( Proof of Elapsed Time), PBFT (Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance), SBFT (Simple Byzantine Fault Tolerance), DBFT (Delegated Byzantine Fault Tolerance), DAG (Directed Acyclic Graph), Proof-of-Activity (Proof of Activity), Proof-of- Importance (Proof of Importance), Proof-of-Capacity (Proof of Capacity), Proof-of-Burn ( Proof of Burn), Proof-of-Weight (Proof of Weight).
Next, we will mainly introduce and analyze the top ten consensus mechanisms of the current blockchain.
》DBFT
-Concept:
Delegated Byzantine fault tolerance. The improved Byzantine fault-tolerant algorithm makes it suitable for blockchain systems. The system consists of nodes, delegators (who can approve blocks), and speakers (who proposes the next block). It is a consensus algorithm that guarantees fault tolerance implemented inside the NEO blockchain.
-Principle:
In this mechanism, there are two participants: the professional bookkeeper "bookkeeping node" and the ordinary users in the system.
Ordinary users vote based on the proportion of holding stake to determine the bookkeeping node. When a consensus is required, a spokesperson is randomly selected from these bookkeeping nodes to draw up a plan, and then other bookkeeping nodes will vote basing on the Byzantine fault tolerance algorithm.That is, majority principle. If more than 66% of the nodes agree to the spokesperson’ plan, a consensus is reached; otherwise, the spokesperson is re-elected and the voting process is repeated.
-Representative application: Neo, etc.
》PoA
-Concept:
Proof of authority. That is, certified by some accredited accounts, these accredited accounts are called "validators". The software that the verifier runs that supports the verifier to place transactions in blocks.
-Principle:
Three conditions:
  1. The identity must be formally verified on the chain, and the information can be cross-verified in a publicly available domain;
  2. The qualifications must be difficult to obtain, so that the rights of the verification block obtained are precious enough;
  3. The authoritative inspection and procedures must be completely unified.
With PoA, every individual has the right to become a verifier, so there is an incentive to maintain the position of the verifier once acquired. By attaching a reputation to the identity, the verifier can be encouraged to maintain the transaction process. Because the verifier does not want to gain a negative reputation, it will lose its hard-won verifier status.
-Representative applications: VeChain, etc.
》DAG
-Concept:
Directed acyclic graph. Each newly added unit in the DAG is not only added to the long chain block, but added to all the previous blocks, verifying each new unit and confirming its parent unit and the parent unit of the parent unit, and gradually confirming until the genesis unit. As the hash of its parent unit is included in its own unit, the blockchains of all transactions are connected to each other to form a graph-like structure with time.
-Principle:
In the DAG network, each node can be a trader and a validator, because the transaction processing in DAG is done by the transaction node itself. Taking IOTA as an example, IOTA’s Tangle led
ger does not need to pay transaction fees while ensuring high-speed transaction processing. However, it does not mean that the transaction is free, because in this ledger, the initiation of each transaction needs to verify the other two random transactions first, and connect the transaction initiated by itself to these two transactions, so the responsibility that miners on the blockchain bear is distributed to all traders. The DAG method of processing transactions can be called asynchronous processing mode.
Figure 10 The difference between the traditional blockchain structure and the DAG structure

https://preview.redd.it/1xfssxj03rc51.png?width=553&format=png&auto=webp&s=95c382f81943c9a188a89ac6b2dadf64446589e6
-Representative applications: IOTA, etc.
》PoET
-Concept:
Proof of elapsed time. That is, it is usually used in a permissioned blockchain network. It can determine the mining rights of the block holders in the network. The permissioned blockchain network requires any prospective participants to verify their identity before joining. According to the principles of the fair lottery system, each node is equally likely to become the winner.
-Principle:
Each participating node in the network must wait for a randomly selected period, and the first node to complete the set waiting time will get a new block. Each node in the blockchain network will generate a random waiting time and sleep for a set time. The node that wakes up first, that is, the node with the shortest waiting time, wakes up and submits a new block to the blockchain, and then broadcasts the necessary information to the entire peer-to-peer network. The same process will be repeated to find the next block.
Two factors:
  1. Participating nodes will naturally select a random time in nature, rather than deliberately;
  2. The winner did complete the waiting time.
-Representative application: HyperLedger Sawtooth, etc.
》PoSV
-Concept:
Proof of stake velocity. Proposed by Reddcoin, drawing on the concept of "money circulation speed" in economics, it mainly allocates bookkeeping rights based on the coin age of nodes participating in the competition.
-Principle:
PoSV also allocates accounting rights according to the coin age of the nodes participating in the competition, but modifies the coin age calculation formula to a function of exponential decay of growth rate. Taking Reddcoin as an example, Reddcoin sets the half-life of the coin age growth rate to 1 month. Assuming that the unit token can accumulate 1CoinDay coin age on the first day, only 0.5CoinDay coin age can be accumulated on the 31st day, and only 0.25CoinDay coin age can be accumulated on the 61st day, and so on. In this way, the nodes are encouraged to use the token to conduct a transaction after holding the token for a period of time, thereby restarting the calculation of the coin age and increasing the circulation speed of the token in the network.
-Representative applications: Reddcoin, etc.
Table 2 Comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of current mainstream consensus mechanisms

https://preview.redd.it/kb04i7eh3rc51.png?width=1236&format=png&auto=webp&s=42de13bc99afaf258c0a740a6618e2d579b59100
Source: network resources
Chapter 4 Summary of the Selection and Status Quo of Consensus Mechanism
4.1 How to choose a consensus mechanism that suits you
Step 1: Determine whether the final result is important
For some applications, the end result is very important. If you are building a new payment system that can support very small amounts, it is acceptable for the transaction result to change. Similarly, if you are creating a new distributed social network, 100% guarantee that the status is updated immediately is not particularly necessary. On the contrary, if you are creating a new distributed protocol, the final result is critical to the user experience. For example, Bitcoin has a final confirmation time of about 1 hour, Ethereum has a final confirmation time of about 6 minutes, and Tendermint Core only has a final confirmation time of 1 second.
Step 2: Determine how fast the application process needs to be
If you are building a game, is it reasonable to wait 15 seconds before each action? Due to the low block processing time of Ethereum, games built on it will cause poor user experience due to Ethereum's throughput. However, the application for the transfer of housing property rights can be run on Ethereum. Use the Cosmos SDK to build an application that allows developers to freely use Tendermint Core. It has a short block processing time and high throughput, and is capable of processing 10,000 transactions per second. You can reduce the required communication overhead and speed up the application by setting the maximum number of validators for the application.
Step 3: Determine the application's demand for decentralization
Some applications such as games may not require very high censorship resistance as a by-product of decentralization. In theory, does it really matter that the validator can create a cartel in the game and reverse the transaction result for profit? If it is not important, a blockchain such as EOS may be more suitable for your needs because of the fast transaction speed and free fees. However, some applications such as autonomous banks are more powerful and decentralized. Although Ethereum is considered to be decentralized, some supporters claim that Ethereum's mining pool is an important part of centralized platform, although there are actually only 11 validators (mining pools). One of the major benefits of building your own blockchain instead of building on a smart contract platform is that you can customize the way the application completes verification. However, it is difficult to build your own blockchain, so the Cosmos SDK is very useful, you can easily build your own blockchain and customize the degree of decentralization you need.
Step 4: Determine whether the system can be terminated
If you are building a new application similar to a distributed ride-sharing service, then ensuring 24/7 service must be the first priority, even if there are occasional errors in accounting similar to transactions. One of the properties of Tendermint Core is that if there is a disagreement between network validators, the network will suspend operations instead of proceeding erroneous transactions. Applications such as decentralized exchanges require correctness at all costs-if there is a problem, it is far better to suspend trading on the decentralized exchange than there may be trading problems.
Summary: Choose a suitable consensus algorithm after weighing the advantages and disadvantages
All in all, there is no single best consensus algorithm. Each consensus algorithm has its own value and advantages. You need to have your own judgments and choices. However, by understanding the relevant processes of the consensus mechanism, including proposals and agreements, and establishing a framework to consider the types of consensus algorithms that your application may require, you should be able to make wiser decisions.
4.2 Future development of consensus mechanism
The consensus algorithm is one of the core elements of the blockchain. Although there are more than 30 consensus mechanisms listed in the article, there are still many niche consensus mechanisms that may not be discussed. As the blockchain technology is gradually known and accepted by the public, more and more newer and better consensus algorithms may appear in the future, which may be brand-new consensus algorithms, and more should be improvement and optimization version based on the current consensus algorithm.
After 2016 and 2017 years’ fast development, the current consensus algorithm does not have a recognized evaluation standard, but is generally more biased towards fairness and decentralization, as well as some technical related issues, such as energy consumption and scalability , Fault tolerance and security, etc. However, blockchain technology must be combined with requirements and application scenarios, and the consensus mechanism algorithm and incentive mechanism are inseparable. How to customize a suitable consensus mechanism according to the characteristics of your own project and optimize the current consensus mechanism will become the future direction of consensus mechanism development
CelesOS
As the first DPOW financial blockchain operating system, CelesOS adopts consensus mechanism 3.0 to break through the "impossible triangle", which can provide high TPS while also allowing for decentralization. Committed to creating a financial blockchain operating system that embraces supervision, providing services for financial institutions and the development of applications on the supervision chain, and formulating a role and consensus ecological supervision layer agreement for supervision.
The CelesOS team is dedicated to building a bridge between blockchain and regulatory agencies/financial industry. We believe that only blockchain technology that cooperates with regulators will have a real future. We believe in and contribute to achieving this goal.
📷Website
https://www.celesos.com/
📷 Telegram
https://t.me/celeschain
📷 Twitter
https://twitter.com/CelesChain
📷 Reddit
https://www.reddit.com/useCelesOS
📷 Medium
https://medium.com/@celesos
📷 Facebook
https://www.facebook.com/CelesOS1
📷 Youtube
https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC1Xsd8wU957D-R8RQVZPfGA
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Review and Prospect of Crypto Economy-Development and Evolution of Consensus Mechanism (2)

Review and Prospect of Crypto Economy-Development and Evolution of Consensus Mechanism (2)

https://preview.redd.it/a51zsja94db51.png?width=567&format=png&auto=webp&s=99e8080c9e9b1fb5e11cbd70f915f9cb37188f81
Foreword
The consensus mechanism is one of the important elements of the blockchain and the core rule of the normal operation of the distributed ledger. It is mainly used to solve the trust problem between people and determine who is responsible for generating new blocks and maintaining the effective unification of the system in the blockchain system. Thus, it has become an everlasting research hot topic in blockchain.
This article starts with the concept and role of the consensus mechanism. First, it enables the reader to have a preliminary understanding of the consensus mechanism as a whole; then starting with the two armies and the Byzantine general problem, the evolution of the consensus mechanism is introduced in the order of the time when the consensus mechanism is proposed; Then, it briefly introduces the current mainstream consensus mechanism from three aspects of concept, working principle and representative project, and compares the advantages and disadvantages of the mainstream consensus mechanism; finally, it gives suggestions on how to choose a consensus mechanism for blockchain projects and pointed out the possibility of the future development of the consensus mechanism.
Contents
First, concept and function of the consensus mechanism
1.1 Concept: The core rules for the normal operation of distributed ledgers
1.2 Role: Solve the trust problem and decide the generation and maintenance of new blocks
1.2.1 Used to solve the trust problem between people
1.2.2 Used to decide who is responsible for generating new blocks and maintaining effective unity in the blockchain system
1.3 Mainstream model of consensus algorithm
Second, the origin of the consensus mechanism
2.1 The two armies and the Byzantine generals
2.1.1 The two armies problem
2.1.2 The Byzantine generals problem
2.2 Development history of consensus mechanism
2.2.1 Classification of consensus mechanism
2.2.2 Development frontier of consensus mechanism
Third, Common Consensus System
Fourth, Selection of consensus mechanism and summary of current situation
4.1 How to choose a consensus mechanism that suits you
4.1.1 Determine whether the final result is important
4.1.2 Determine how fast the application process needs to be
4.1.2 Determining the degree to which the application requires for decentralization
4.1.3 Determine whether the system can be terminated
4.1.4 Select a suitable consensus algorithm after weighing the advantages and disadvantages
4.2 Future development of consensus mechanism
Last lecture review: Chapter 1 Concept and Function of Consensus Mechanism plus Chapter 2 Origin of Consensus Mechanism
Chapter 3 Common Consensus Mechanisms (Part 1)
Figure 6 Summary of relatively mainstream consensus mechanisms
📷
https://preview.redd.it/9r7q3xra4db51.png?width=567&format=png&auto=webp&s=bae5554a596feaac948fae22dffafee98c4318a7
Source: Hasib Anwar, "Consensus Algorithms: The Root Of The Blockchain Technology"
The picture above shows 14 relatively mainstream consensus mechanisms summarized by a geek Hasib Anwar, including PoW (Proof of Work), PoS (Proof of Stake), DPoS (Delegated Proof of Stake), LPoS (Lease Proof of Stake), PoET ( Proof of Elapsed Time), PBFT (Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance), SBFT (Simple Byzantine Fault Tolerance), DBFT (Delegated Byzantine Fault Tolerance), DAG (Directed Acyclic Graph), Proof-of-Activity (Proof of Activity), Proof-of- Importance (Proof of Importance), Proof-of-Capacity (Proof of Capacity), Proof-of-Burn ( Proof of Burn), Proof-of-Weight (Proof of Weight).
Next, we will mainly introduce and analyze the top ten consensus mechanisms of the current blockchain.
》POW
-Concept:
Work proof mechanism. That is, the proof of work means that it takes a certain amount of computer time to confirm the work.
-Principle:
Figure 7 PoW work proof principle
📷
https://preview.redd.it/xupacdfc4db51.png?width=554&format=png&auto=webp&s=3b6994641f5890804d93dfed9ecfd29308c8e0cc
The PoW represented by Bitcoin uses the SHA-256 algorithm function, which is a 256-bit hash algorithm in the password hash function family:
Proof of work output = SHA256 (SHA256 (block header));
if (output of proof of work if (output of proof of work >= target value), change the random number, recursive i logic, continue to compare with the target value.
New difficulty value = old difficulty value* (time spent by last 2016 blocks /20160 minutes)
Target value = maximum target value / difficulty value
The maximum target value is a fixed number. If the last 2016 blocks took less than 20160 minutes, then this coefficient will be small, and the target value will be adjusted bigger, if not, the target value will be adjusted smaller. Bitcoin mining difficulty and block generation speed will be inversely proportional to the appropriate adjustment of block generation speed.
-Representative applications: BTC, etc.
》POS
-Concept:
Proof of stake. That is, a mechanism for reaching consensus based on the holding currency. The longer the currency is held, the greater the probability of getting a reward.
-Principle:
PoS implementation algorithm formula: hash(block_header) = Coin age calculation formula: coinage = number of coins * remaining usage time of coins
Among them, coinage means coin age, which means that the older the coin age, the easier it is to get answers. The calculation of the coin age is obtained by multiplying the coins owned by the miner by the remaining usage time of each coin, which also means that the more coins you have, the easier it is to get answers. In this way, pos solves the problem of wasting resources in pow, and miners cannot own 51% coins from the entire network, so it also solves the problem of 51% attacks.
-Representative applications: ETH, etc.
》DPoS
-Concept:
Delegated proof of stake. That is, currency holding investors select super nodes by voting to operate the entire network , similar to the people's congress system.
-Principle:
The DPOS algorithm is divided into two parts. Elect a group of block producers and schedule production.
Election: Only permanent nodes with the right to be elected can be elected, and ultimately only the top N witnesses can be elected. These N individuals must obtain more than 50% of the votes to be successfully elected. In addition, this list will be re-elected at regular intervals.
Scheduled production: Under normal circumstances, block producers take turns to generate a block every 3 seconds. Assuming that no producer misses his order, then the chain they produce is bound to be the longest chain. When a witness produces a block, a block needs to be generated every 2s. If the specified time is exceeded, the current witness will lose the right to produce and the right will be transferred to the next witness. Then the witness is not only unpaid, but also may lose his identity.
-Representative applications: EOS, etc.
》DPoW
-Concept:
Delayed proof of work. A new-generation consensus mechanism based on PoB and DPoS. Miners use their own computing power, through the hash algorithm, and finally prove their work, get the corresponding wood, wood is not tradable. After the wood has accumulated to a certain amount, you can go to the burning site to burn the wood. This can achieve a balance between computing power and mining rights.
-Principle:
In the DPoW-based blockchain, miners are no longer rewarded tokens, but "wood" that can be burned, burning wood. Miners use their own computing power, through the hash algorithm, and finally prove their work, get the corresponding wood, wood is not tradable. After the wood has accumulated to a certain amount, you can go to the burning site to burn the wood. Through a set of algorithms, people who burn more wood or BP or a group of BP can obtain the right to generate blocks in the next event segment, and get rewards (tokens) after successful block generation. Since more than one person may burn wood in a time period, the probability of producing blocks in the next time period is determined by the amount of wood burned by oneself. The more it is burned, the higher the probability of obtaining block rights in the next period.
Two node types: notary node and normal node.
The 64 notary nodes are elected by the stakeholders of the dPoW blockchain, and the notarized confirmed blocks can be added from the dPoW blockchain to the attached PoW blockchain. Once a block is added, the hash value of the block will be added to the Bitcoin transaction signed by 33 notary nodes, and a hash will be created to the dPow block record of the Bitcoin blockchain. This record has been notarized by most notary nodes in the network. In order to avoid wars on mining between notary nodes, and thereby reduce the efficiency of the network, Komodo designed a mining method that uses a polling mechanism. This method has two operating modes. In the "No Notary" (No Notary) mode, all network nodes can participate in mining, which is similar to the traditional PoW consensus mechanism. In the "Notaries Active" mode, network notaries use a significantly reduced network difficulty rate to mine. In the "Notary Public Activation" mode, each notary public is allowed to mine a block with its current difficulty, while other notary public nodes must use 10 times the difficulty of mining, and all normal nodes use 100 times the difficulty of the notary public node.
Figure 8 DPoW operation process without a notary node
📷
https://preview.redd.it/3yuzpemd4db51.png?width=500&format=png&auto=webp&s=f3bc2a1c97b13cb861414d3eb23a312b42ea6547
-Representative applications: CelesOS, Komodo, etc.
CelesOS Research Institute丨DPoW consensus mechanism-combustible mining and voting
》PBFT
-Concept:
Practical Byzantine fault tolerance algorithm. That is, the complexity of the algorithm is reduced from exponential to polynomial level, making the Byzantine fault-tolerant algorithm feasible in practical system applications.
-Principle:
Figure 9 PBFT algorithm principle
📷
https://preview.redd.it/8as7rgre4db51.png?width=567&format=png&auto=webp&s=372be730af428f991375146efedd5315926af1ca
First, the client sends a request to the master node to call the service operation, and then the master node broadcasts other copies of the request. All copies execute the request and send the result back to the client. The client needs to wait for f+1 different replica nodes to return the same result as the final result of the entire operation.
Two qualifications: 1. All nodes must be deterministic. That is to say, the results of the operation must be the same under the same conditions and parameters. 2. All nodes must start from the same status. Under these two limited qualifications, even if there are failed replica nodes, the PBFT algorithm agrees on the total order of execution of all non-failed replica nodes, thereby ensuring security.
-Representative applications: Tendermint Consensus, etc.
Next Lecture: Chapter 3 Common Consensus Mechanisms (Part 2) + Chapter 4 Consensus Mechanism Selection and Status Summary
CelesOS
As the first DPOW financial blockchain operating system, CelesOS adopts consensus mechanism 3.0 to break through the "impossible triangle", which can provide high TPS while also allowing for decentralization. Committed to creating a financial blockchain operating system that embraces supervision, providing services for financial institutions and the development of applications on the supervision chain, and formulating a role and consensus ecological supervision layer agreement for supervision.
The CelesOS team is dedicated to building a bridge between blockchain and regulatory agencies/financial industry. We believe that only blockchain technology that cooperates with regulators will have a real future. We believe in and contribute to achieving this goal.

📷Website
https://www.celesos.com/
📷 Telegram
https://t.me/celeschain
📷 Twitter
https://twitter.com/CelesChain
📷 Reddit
https://www.reddit.com/useCelesOS
📷 Medium
https://medium.com/@celesos
📷 Facebook
https://www.facebook.com/CelesOS1
📷 Youtube
https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC1Xsd8wU957D-R8RQVZPfGA
submitted by CelesOS to u/CelesOS [link] [comments]

⟳ 870 apps added, 78 updated at f-droid.org

Notice: this update is spurious, and the issue is being looked at.
⟳ f-droid.org from Wed, 26 Feb 2020 20:21:50 GMT updated on Sun, 01 Mar 2020 05:23:29 GMT contains 2962 apps.
Added (870)
Updated (78)
2020-03-01T05:53:18Z
submitted by BrainstormBot to FDroidUpdates [link] [comments]

White Paper, Miner, Pizza … | "Old Objects" in the Cryptocurrency Museum

White Paper, Miner, Pizza … |
https://preview.redd.it/giu1ssilga151.jpg?width=900&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=41510785ccdc0d99544ec74229f62427d1c0ce3e
Museum has played the role of a time recorder. Talking about bitcoin, more than ten years has passed since the creation of it. Although it is uncomparable to the stock market with a hundred years of history, during the ten years, in the different stages of the development of bitcoin and blockchain have continuously poured in geeks, miners, speculators, newbies, leaving keywords such as sudden rich, myth, scam, belief, revolution, etc.
There are also many “old objects” with stories in the “Museum” of the cryptocurrency realm. On Museum Day, let ’s review the stories brought by these “old objects”.
The First Digital Currency White Paper — Bitcoin White Paper
On Oct. 31, 2008, Satoshi Nakamoto released the Bitcoin white paper — A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System in the cryptographic mail group where he belongs, and Bitcoin was born since then.
A white paper is a document that explains the purpose and technology used in cryptocurrency. Usually a cryptocurrency uses the white paper to help people understand what it provides, and it is also an important information channel for investors to understand a project. Therefore, the level of the white paper affects people’s confidence towards the coin.
In a word, in the cryptocurrency and blockchain industry, the value of a white paper is equivalent to that of a standard financing speech. The white paper plays a vital role in this emerging market.
The First Public Bitcoin-Physical Transaction — Pizza
Since Satoshi Nakamoto mined the Bitcoin genesis block on January 3, 2009, Bitcoin has only been spread among the small crowd and has not realized its value.
Not until May 22, 2010, Bitcoin enthusiast “Laszlo Hanyecz” bought a pizza coupon worth $25 with 10,000 bitcoins. This is the first public bitcoin-physical transaction. Bitcoin has its price with 0.3 cents per bitcoin.


This day has also become the famous “Bitcoin Pizza Day” in Bitcoin history. Bitcoin as the imagination of the financial system has more practical significance. The tenth anniversary is coming. How will you commemorate it? Will you buy a pizza?
The First Digital Asset Exchange — Bitcoinmarket.com
After the birth of Bitcoin, in addition to mining, the only way to get Bitcoin in the early days was to conduct transactions on forums or IRC (commonly known as Internet Relay Chat). However, this method involves both long transaction time and great security risk.
In March 2010, the first digital asset exchange — Bitcoinmarket.com launched. However, due to lack of liquidity and transaction depth, it disappeared soon after its establishment, but Bitcoinmarket.com opened the era of the operation of the cryptocurrency realm exchange 1.0.


On June 9, 2011, China’s first Bitcoin exchange — Bitcoin China (BTCChina) launched. Its founder, Yang Linke, translated Bitcoin into Chinese “比特币” for the first time. In 2013, China’s bitcoin trading entered the golden age, and exchanges sprung up. China monopolized more than 90% of the world’s bitcoin transactions. Now, if the top three exchanges Binance, Huobi Global, OKEx are the Exchange 2.0, then the index exchange represented by 58COIN called the 3.0 version, leading the trend.
The First Generation of High-Performance Miner — ASIC Miner
When Satoshi Nakamoto created Bitcoin, the only way to get it is to use computers (including home computers) to mine, mainly relying on the CPU to calculate. However, as the value of digital currencies such as Bitcoin has become higher and higher, mining has become an industry with the competition is getting fiercer, accompanied by increasing difficulty of mining. Therefore, hardware performance competition starts.
In July 2012, the genius Jiang Xinyu (Internet nickname is “Friedcat”) from the junior class of the University of Science and Technology declared at the forum that he could make ASIC miners (chips). As far as mining computing power is concerned, ASICs can be tens of thousands or more higher than the same-generation CPUs and GPUs.
At the beginning of 2013, Zhang Nanqian (Pumpkin Zhang), a suspended doctoral student from the Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, developed the ASIC miner and named it “Avalon”.


In June 2013, the Friedcat’s miner USB was finally released, and it maintained 20% of the computing power of the entire network.
At the end of 2013, Wu Jihan, used the tens of millions yuan earned from Friedcat through investment, worked together with Jenke group, to develop the Antminer S1. Since then, the miner manufacturer Bitmain began to enter the stage of history.
It is no exaggeration to say that Friedcat and Zhang Nangeng have opened the domestic “mining” era.
The Birthplace of China’s Bitcoin — Garage Coffee
It is not only the “old objects” that record history, but also a place that everyone in the cryptocurrency realm aspires to.
Guo Hongcai once said, “Without no The Garage Café, there will be no cryptocurrency realm today. Since it is a very mysterious place that all waves of people from the café joint together to create today’s digital asset industry.

▲ In March 2013, American student Jake Smith successfully purchased a cup of coffee at The Garage Café with 0.131 bitcoins. This move attracted the attention of CCTV, and it conducted an interview.
Indeed, The Garage Café is the world ’s first entrepreneurial-themed coffee shop. It has been legendary since its establishment in 2011. The Garage Cafét is not only the core coordinate on China’s Bitcoin map, but also the birthplace of the Chinese cryptocurrency circle, where digital asset realm tycoons including Guo Hongcai, Zhao Dong, Li Xiaolai, Li Lin have made their ways.
The development of digital currency is only 11 years old. Through these “old objects”, we review the various stories of this wave of technology together, hoping to help you understand the development process of the digital currency field. Meanwhile, I also remind all practitioners to use history as a mirror and forge ahead.
Website: https://www.58ex.com/
Twitter: https://twitter.com/58_coin
Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/coin.58COIN
Telegram: https://t.me/official58
Medium: https://medium.com/@58coin_blog/
submitted by 58CoinExchange to u/58CoinExchange [link] [comments]

Game Theory: Vin Armani on the machinations of Calvin Ayre

There's a fascinating discussion developing on twitter around a thread Vin Armani is writing in response to a number of Bitcoin Cash figures. The discussion is about the nature of the game that Calvin Ayre is playing. What's Bitcoin SV's motives? Armani thinks it's about taking control of Bitcoin Cash, no matter the costs. And they are willing to mine at a loss for 2 years, or destroy Bitcoin Cash's market value in the process.
Here are some highlights. Keep in mind that I'm skipping a lot and altering the order. Keen to hear people's thoughts.
1)
I figured out back in June that they were trying to split the chain for some reason. It's what made Craig block me (and abandon that particular plan). I didn't fully understand the strategy until now. Now it makes sense.
2)
Ignore Craig. Don't focus on Craig. That's what Calvin wants you to do. That's why he puts Craig out front, because Craig is a blowhard and half of what he says is nonsense. Craig is NOT a poke player.
3)
Craig is Calvin's employee. If you read the reports from the time, it was Calvin who pushed the whole "Craig is Satoshi" narrative. He funded the operation. If Calvin wanted Craig to stop behaving as he is, he could stop him with a single word.
4)
People don't understand what nChain is, but it helps to start with the fact that nChain does not.generste revenue. It is completely funded out.of Calvin's incredibly deep pockets.
4)
And you believe that Calvin is a desperate criminal? That's fine to believe, but I don't think that is an accurate reflection of reality. I have spent time with the man. He is highly intelligent, calm, and calculating.
5)
Now we are on the same page. And now you are on the same page as Calvin and Craig. Read the last sentence:
@CalvinAyre: "Training mind and body for the world’s first #Bitcoin hash war. With the minds of miners now opened to Miners Choice and Nakamoto Consensus, I now believe that hash war will be the new norm. Winning will now be defined by who can take long term pain in protection of your values"
6)
And now statements like this should be crystal clear in their meaning:
https://pbs.twimg.com/media/DrEytYPX0AEdBar.jpg
7)
I've been trying to explain this
November 15th isn't a BCH "hash war," it's a war for the hearts and minds of exchanges. If an exchange is only running nodes of a particular implementation (say ABC), depositing coins mined from SV post-split coinbase will be impossible. Chain unfollowed by exchanges = worthless
8)
They are willing to completely destroy the value of BCH to "win". They have said as much. This is about winning for Calvin. He doesn't need the money.
9)
We are playing Bitcoin. Bitcoin is an infinite game. You cannot win infinite games. The point of an infinite game is to keep the game going and keep yourself playing.
10)
[…] Poker is a finite game. Calvin is playing Poker, not Bitcoin.
11)
During this event, half of CoinGeek's hash will be running ABC. You can only attack the chain if you are running the software mining that chain. Right now, CoinGeek has 45-50% of total active BCH hash rate. Who knows how much they are planning to rent for battle.
12)
They are betting that it won't take "infinite money." It probably wouldn't takeore than a few weeks of a completely unreliable networkfor exchanges to indefinitely halt trading and the price to effectively crash to pennies. Their bet is the other side will capitulate before that
13)
Exchanges and applications will fatigue first and point exclusively at the SV chain because ABC will be a war zone.
14)
Those exchanges have a fiduciary duty to their depositors to be able to have reliable withdrawals and deposits. That requires pointing their services at nodes with a ledger that is not being constantly reorg'd.
15)
The power on the other side is fundamentally Bitmain. They are in the middle of a huge IPO and their valuation is based, in no small measure on their massive holdings of BCH. They cannot afford to fight & diminish the value of their holdings at this time. It could derail the IPO.
16)
The distributed community will prevail in the long term. That doesn't mean it will win every battle. It doesn't mean that BCH will survive this. Bitcoin will survive. Part of why the distributed community survives is because a network can die without killing Bitcoin.
imaginary_username 1)
[…] if this attack is successful, it'll redefine the entire crypto landscape and possibly destroy the value proposition of all coins, until another genius arises much later and come up with a better consensus and social system.
imaginary_username 2)
I'm not sure people in the industry quite realize how much is at stake here. The outcome will resonate far beyond BCH, even the laziest of BTC whales should be alarmed.
Vin Armani 17)
They can't see it. That's why I said only Calvin and Craig are even aware they are sitting at a poker table. Hard to win at poker if you don't know you are playing.
chopsticks.cash 1)
It's much more complicated game, because it's not a game. Much more is at stake here, we're talking about taking over a multi-billion ($8B-$200B) dollars real world industry with the outcome of becoming the next Bitmain. Things will not go smooth & be simple, it's geopolitics.
Vin Armani 18)
They don't want to be the next Bitmain. They want to be the next Rothschilds. After BCH, their next target will be BTC.

Edit: Updates added.
submitted by CatatonicAdenosine to btc [link] [comments]

Bitcoin, dogecoin. How I tried to make my fortune in 2014 with the sweat of my computer.

Bitcoin, dogecoin. How I tried to make my fortune in 2014 with the sweat of my computer.

https://preview.redd.it/mv21lvsa3do31.jpg?width=1280&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=51bf5296a06eedc178079cf0b3ab4c3cfc44f271
Make money just by working on your computer: the rise of electronic currencies, in the wake of bitcoin, can be a little dream, especially in times of crisis. We tried the experiment. Wealth at your fingertips? Not for everybody.
Reading time: 6 min.
We have known at least since March 2013, with the soaring Bitcoin (BTC) price during the closing of Cypriot banks: electronic currencies, it has not much virtual. Since the creation of the enigmatic Satoshi Nakamoto serves as a safe haven, a playground for speculators, interests the States and even makes it possible to pay for his trip to the space where his beer, bigger world would dare to pretend that it only serves to buy prohibited substances on SilkRoad - if it ever was.
At the end of November, James Howells was mocked a lot, this Brit, caught in a household frenzy, inadvertently threw a hard disk containing 7,500 bitcoins, the equivalent of 4.8 million euros. A small fortune now lost in the depths of the Docksway dump near Newport. Nevertheless, before causing the consternation of the global Internet, Jamie still had the nose to undermine the BTC at a time when the experience mobilized a handful of hardcore geeks.
Since the rise (sawtooth) bitcoin, each unit currently weighs more than 800 dollars, nearly thirty cryptocurrencies have emerged. Is it possible, this year again, to let this promising, volatile and risky train pass, or to fall into
  1. Choose your electronic motto.
  2. All are based on the same principle: to summarize (very) big features [1], the issuance of money is governed by an algorithm, and the new corners put in circulation reward the resolution, by participants in a network of peer and mathematical problems, including the validation and archiving of transactions, which are public [2]. Mining a cryptocurrency is like putting the computing power of your computer in the service of the network.
  3. Since the program is decreasing [3], the mining becomes more and more difficult with time (and with the increase of the number of participants): to hope to make his pelote via the only computational activity, one must either have to at its disposal a large fleet of machines, to be a miner from the first hour. Exit the bitcoin, long since out of the reach of a personal computer.
  4. I similarly gave up the litecoin and peercoin, already well launched (they date respectively 2011 and 2012), to set my heart on one of the most recent currencies - and certainly the hippest of the moment: the dogecoin.
  5. As its name suggests, the cryptocurrency favorite Shiba Inus from around the world is a tribute to the Doge, one of the most famous memes of 2013, with its captions in Comic Sans, the font most sorry for the web. A geek joke, therefore, except that - the unfathomable mysteries of the Internet - its value jumped 900% in the third week of December, and she suffered a Christmas robbery online.
  6. Admittedly, at the time when these lines are written, the dogecoin caps at 0.00023 dollars [4] - its quite ridiculous (and quite depressing), but even if you bet on the future, so much to go frankly.
  7. 2. The hands in the engine the billboard.
  8. From there, things get tough (a little). Installing an electronic purse on ones computer is not very complicated (the software is available for Windows, MacOS, Android or, for the more adventurous, on a repository to compile under Linux). It is also possible to use an online wallet, but it is more risky (except, perhaps, when one is called James Howells). When opened for the first time, the purse automatically synchronizes with the Dogecoin network (be careful, it can be long), which gives you a payment address (we can generate more later).
  9. The two most common ways to undermine electronic money are to use the computing power of the computers microprocessor (CPU) or, more efficiently, that of the graphics card processor (GPU). In the first case, the program is simple to install; in the second, it is necessary to choose the most adapted to its material [5]. There are, thankfully, a lot of online tutorials. Still, to operate the corner board requires in all cases to trade the comfort of the GUI for aridity, so confusing to the layman, command lines - we have nothing for nothing.
  10. Finally, at work alone, we prefer collaboration. Mining is best done in groups, or rather in pool: it distributes the gains, of course, but also the difficulty. For the dogecoin as for all the crypto-currencies, the pools are numerous. A quick tour of a dedicated section of the Reddit community site can help you make your choice.
  11. 3. Extension of the field of struggle.
  12. And after? After, we can rest, since it is the machine that works. But the truth of a cryptocurrency - even at the exceptionally high LOL and LOL rates of the Shiba Inu - is cruel and brutal: not all computers are equal. Or rather, some are more equal than others. For while you heat your CPU or your graphics card to grapple some unfortunate corners, others will sweep the game thanks to specialized integrated circuits, computing capabilities much higher.
  13. If the game of buying and reselling corners is basically just another stock exchange mechanism, less the intervention of the central banks - what is at stake, and the big political question they ask: are we certain to prefer speculation pure and perfect to monetary policies, however questionable they may be? -, production, it is the law of the strongest (in calculation). There are even lethal weapons at $ 10,000 each, with which your processors are like mosquitoes in front of an A bomb.
  14. And if you think it does not matter because after all, it does not cost you anything, think again: the components, like humans, wear out faster when they work at full speed, and the bill of electricity can quickly grow. The profitability of the case is anything but certain, as evidenced by the results of online calculators. (Needless to say, our laughing dogecoin does not stand up to this kind of simulation.)
  15. Much more boring, from a collective point of view: the carbon footprint, current and above all expected, of electronic currencies worries more and more. Last spring, Bloomberg estimated that the energy consumption of the Bitcoin network was equivalent to that of 31,000 US households. Not sure, according to the site, that their emission is less damaging to the environment than have been some physical currencies.
  16. For exciting to analyze that is the emergence of cryptocurrencies, it is better to ask now about their cost, economic and ecological. To see it as a potential source of income, except for being a very early adopter with a hollow nose, an individual with a lot of computational capital or a clever trader, you have to make a point.
  17. If the recurrent comparison with the famous Ponzi pyramid [6] is discussed (after all, the decentralized currencies do not make promises), remains that, as long as the value does not collapse, the system benefits mainly to the first entrants - except James Howells.
  18. As the Bitcoin.fr site aptly states: all this is just an experiment, invest only the time and money you can afford to lose. LOLs love was not a worse reason than another to experiment, so I finally submitted my laptop to four days and three nights of intense activity, which makes me happy. owner of a good half a thousand dogecoins. Either the equivalent of 0.115 dollar, or 0.08 euro. It is obviously not worth the electricity consumed to generate them, it increases my carbon footprint, but it amuses my entourage. But laughter is, as everyone knows, a safe bet in times of crisis, less volatile than a real bitcoin.
  19. And then, after all, you never know.
  20. Amaelle Guiton.
  21. 1. For explanations more provided (the case is quite complex), refer, for example, to the series of very detailed notes devoted to blogger Turblog.
  22. 2. And as such, searchable by everyone. It is the identity of the users that is not known, unless they reveal it, hence the reputation of anonymity (relative, therefore) cryptocurrencies.
  23. 3. In the case of bitcoin, the maximum of 21 million units should be reached around 2140.
  24. 4. For a day-to-day follow-up, see the CoinMarketCap site which lists the exchange rates of crypto-currencies, based on the dollar value of bitcoin.
  25. 5. We discover then, unfortunately, that some graphics cards do not allow the mining. This is the case for the author of these lines, reduced to working in conditions of extreme computer deprivation.
  26. 6. Comparison which is at the heart of a hilarious note on the ponzicoin, signed by the economic journalist Matthew OBrien, on The Atlantic (to read if you intend seriously to invest in the dogecoin).
submitted by Mejbah411 to u/Mejbah411 [link] [comments]

Bottos chain CEO Li Xiang: The future of data securitization, everyone is Xiaolai Li

Bottos chain CEO Li Xiang: The future of data securitization, everyone is Xiaolai Li
A few days ago, the IFIC International Financial Technology Innovation Summit, hosted by People’s Daily People’s Digital, Sanya City Bureau of Commerce, FINWEX, and Guoyin Jinkong, was held in Sanya. At the meeting, Bottos Chain CEO Li Xiang made the theme “The Hope of Machine Civilization”. The speech shows the basic positioning of the Bottos chain “the infrastructure that focuses on artificial intelligence, the application platform that serves data, algorithms and computing power”, and outlines the evolutionary framework of machine civilization to replace industrial civilization. During the meeting, Golden Finance interviewed the Bottos chain CEO Li Xiang.


Bottos CEO Li Xiang

Golden Finance: Please introduce the development track of the Bottos chain?

Li Xiang: According to different development periods, we divide the Bottos chain into 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0.
From 2017 to 2019, Bottos Chain 1.0 — positioned as an artificial intelligence infrastructure. Our entire team spent a year and a half developing BottosChain from 0 to 1, and open source at the end of May 2018, and officially handed over the community to decentralization in December of the same year. As a self-originating public chain, the Bottos chain BottosChain has its own independent property rights in many key technologies. At present, we have applied for 3 key technology patents, which are very flexible in the whole architecture design. We reserve the interface for the AI ​​empowering blockchain, and at the same time have great advantages in commercial performance, and do everything possible to lower the threshold. From 2019 to 2021, it will be Bottos Chain 2.0 — positioned in the artificial intelligence industry. Our goal is to help 10,000 smart DApps to land, securing massive amounts of user data assets, and letting data, computing power, algorithms and other production materials Fast exchange, spiraling out higher AI wisdom, allowing the industry to achieve a higher premium. From 2022 to 2025, the Bottos chain 3.0 is positioned as a revolution in the AI ​​back-feeding blockchain. Based on the accumulated industrial data and machine intelligence of the Bottos chain 2.0, the Bottos chain will pass the underlying code to the robot to optimize and rewrite. The ultimate goal of the first public chain of artificial intelligence. I believe that by 2025, humans no longer need to work. The machine is not only fully qualified for labor, but also the underlying code of the blockchain. In the future, the Bottos chain platform will be used to divide the value of machines and people. At that time, human intelligence will be You can explore the stars and explore the bigger unknowns.

Golden Finance: What do you think is the biggest value of the blockchain?

Li Xiang: Rather than saying that the blockchain creates new value, it is better to say that the blockchain will not be released from the statistical stock value. For example, each of us is generating massive amounts of data every day. When these data are securitized by the blockchain, everyone is Xiaolai Li. The digital economics of Bottos chain cognition is the use of blockchain technology to redistribute the productivity of the digital economy through data, algorithms, and computational power. The Bottos chain is positioned to carry the evolution of artificial intelligence using blockchain technology, and we must share Data asset securitization will bring huge value dividends.
In the era of the Internet, data is centralized, and data obtained from users at no cost has created giant companies such as BAT. In the blockchain era, personal data will truly belong to individuals. Due to the popularity of 5G-promoted ubiquitous Internet of Things, the silent data of tera-sensors will be activated to generate new artificial intelligence, between individuals and individuals outside the BAT client. Obtaining the possibility of peer-to-peer direct sharing of data, we do not need to snatch data from Internet packets, but exchange data directly from the bottom of the sensor through the Internet of Everything. The exchange and superposition of data and data has spawned the spiral evolution of algorithms and computational forces, and then returns the generated value to the individuals of the data source. We can see that the platform built by the Bottos chain carries the closed-loop value of data, algorithms and computing power in the machine civilization. Artificial intelligence is one of the few blockchain fields that can construct an all-digital closed loop. Artificial intelligence is also the only way to bypass Taobao WeChat. This is the value chain of the centralized application, which is the original intention of the Bottos chain to locate artificial intelligence. In the field of artificial intelligence, the main source of value of Keda Xunfei and Shangtang Technology is the free data source provided by millions of users. We can imagine that the market value of the two companies will be divided into millions of users, and the per capita capital will be renewed. Assigning the scene, this is the mission of the Bottos chain.

Golden Finance: How do you see the relationship between artificial intelligence and blockchain now?

Li Xiang: Artificial intelligence is productivity, blockchain is production relations, productivity is that I can destroy you, production relationship is that I can’t directly destroy you, but I can offer the best person to destroy. Productivity creates value, and production relations drive productivity, so they are complementary and can be understood as the poles of Tai Chi. So how many blockchains in the future will have a lot of blockchains to help him achieve value, otherwise he can’t live alone because he didn’t make money. Suppose a developer researches an algorithm, including Bitcoin, which is an algorithm that requires a set of value chains to collaborate and a set of cross-organizational value exchange systems to support. Without a value chain and value mitigation, this algorithm cannot be separated. survive. We have restored this form of bitcoin to countless entrepreneurs, technology workers, man-machine warriors, and data providers, so that they can make new money. Intelligent hardware far exceeds the commercial value of traditional hardware. It comes from its semi-soft and semi-hard features. The soft part can not only capture hard information, perform edge calculation, but also self-purify to rewrite the working mode of hardware. We can simply Understood as a line upgrade on Apple phones. But traditional hardware, it is only hard and not soft, his data is wasted, and he can’t self-evolve. So, the combination of soft and hard is a new life state of the new life, which is the basic unit of machine civilization. Everything in the future is soft and hard, it generates data, and the hardware becomes a living body. This kind of living body will evolve from industrial civilization to machine civilization if it evolves from industrial civilization to machine civilization if it evolves into machines that build machines and machines that write programs (we are writing artificial contracts directly with artificial intelligence).

Golden Finance: What difficulties and challenges did Bottos encounter from its inception to the present, and which pits have been crossed?

Li Xiang: From 2017 to 2019, we have experienced some minor storms. In general, it is a challenge all the way, but in the end, it will turn into a growing nectar. The first is the cognitive challenge. We are a revolutionary platform. Therefore, we advocate the spirit of geeks. Only by breaking through the cognition can we change the world. We believe that the artificial intelligence + blockchain can rewrite human civilization. The future is the age of machine civilization. Everyone is worth the money. It can support countless robots. At the same time, everyone is very profitable because he participates in and shares the feast of machine civilization. This is a huge bonus that the Bottos chain hopes to excavate. Secondly, the technical challenge, blockchain + AI is extremely brain-burning, when black technology encounters black technology, if there is no deep understanding of the two industries, there is no great courage and determination, this double track It is very difficult to do it. Finally, there are challenges in the quality of the team. In the process of project development, there will always be a low point. When there are pressures from all sides, there are new people joining the old people on the road, how the core team keeps the initial heart and the front, I think it is the project. The core factor that can ultimately achieve the goal.

Golden Finance: What is the possible type or industry of DAPP in the future Bottos chain?

Li Xiang: Focusing on data and sensor algorithms, there are many application scenarios, such as travel scenarios, smart home scenarios, car networking scenarios, and then there are a large number of scenarios on the mobile side, or reversed according to value, as long as it can correspond to a billion-dollar The centralized enterprise, we all have the possibility to create a mechanism to take back. At present, artificial intelligence has begun to erupt from visual hearing, such as Keda Xunfei and Shangtang Technology, which have begun to gain a lot of application value. The reason is that the standard of the Turing test is to let the machine have the ability to talk with people. This ability comes first from simulating human perception. The meaning of the sensor is to digitally simulate the five senses of people and generate massive data. So now we see that artificial intelligence breaks through from hearing and vision first, because human sensors and radios are the crystallization of human sensors that are close to a hundred years of development, and the sensors of touch, smell and taste need to evolve gradually. . With five senses, we also need to think about thinking. Google’s man-machine war is the application of thinking. With thinking and driving feedback, Google’s Boston Power Robot is the application that drives feedback. Google is a monument to artificial intelligence, its valuation is more than 800 billion US dollars, and countless Keda Xunfei in the world are catching up with speed. It is conceivable that the Bottos chain stands at a dawn moment when a great era is about to open. We not only hope to remind the birth of countless Google, but also hope that these “new Google” will repay the millions of wealth of Xiaolai Li.

If you aren’t already in our group, please join now! https://t.me/bottosofficial
Bottos Website | Twitter |Facebook | Telegram
submitted by BOTTOS_AI to Bottos [link] [comments]

Mechtant mondays - Jagoda

Welcome back to Merchant mondays

Merchant mondays is the moment to show your appreciation for the businesses that lead the way in the adoption of cryptocurrencies. Instead of paying with fiat for your next purchase, use this Monday initiative to pay with VTC instead.

This monday I want to highlight Jagoda! Check out some games you can buy with Vertcoin from their website.

On an nice sidenote. I am under the impression that work on the integration of VTC with BTCpayserver is in its final phase (if not complete already). I want to thank everyone who worked on it! Let's use this to get VTC accepted in many new stores!

Debit cards

With UQUID, buying online and sending money to friends is made easier and safer than ever: all you need is an email address. Your money is protected, no personal information is revealed, and you can retrieve the details of every payment at any moment.

Charity

Helperbit is a free and transparent way to support a charity project. You can donate to charity in Vertcoin and give something back to the world.

Education

LearnCrypto offers training about Crypto trading.The team at LearnCrypto.io has dedicated thousands of hours to educating the public and our students in all areas of Cryptocurrencies.

Food

PexPeppers is specialized in "finest chili sauces, jellies, salts, seeds & more." Based in Pueblo, Colorado, USA PexPeppers is selling all over the world.

Garden & Agriculture

Royal Queen Seeds is amongst the fastest growing cannabis seed companies in Europe. After building up many years of experience in growing cannabis seeds in the Netherlands, we decided to launch our own line of cannabis seeds and are now able to offer you quality feminized, autoflowering and medical seeds at a good price.

Gift Cards

Coincards provides Giftcards and was created in July of 2014.
Crypto De Change provides Gift Cards and Silver Buillons since July 2013.
Giftoff is a "digital gift card retailer with the largest range on offer in Europe. Since 2014 we’ve been enabling digital currency users to shop with major retailers like Amazon.co.uk, Steam and Marks & Spencer. We stock over 70 gift cards and accept over 40 digital currencies as well as UK credit and debit cards."
The Sheldon Store is a online store where you can buy giftcards with Cryptocurrencies. You can buy Amazon, iTunes, Google Play, PlayStation, Uber, Netflix (and many more) gift cards. The Sheldon store team consists of cryptocurrency enthusiasts working together, driven by a single goal; to create a world where everyday people earn, spend and invest cryptocurrency like they would any other fiat currency in their everyday life.

Goods/Merchandise

Astronaut Apparel makes every effort to operate in a transparent and ethical manner. We will be integrating blockchain features to help with supply chain management, so that you can see exactly where your apparel was made.
Barter4Crypto is a platform where users can offer and pay each other in cryptocurrencies for services and products.
Bullcrypto is a brand new apparel shop that sells everything from tshirts to hats or from mugs to posters!
An online marketplace (similar to Ebay) with buyer and seller protection. This platform allows you to buy and sell products for Crypto with escrow possibilities for Vertcoin.
Cyroline is on "the tireless hunt for the special in the fashion world, the perfect fusion of individual styles, quality and sustainability." In physical stores you can pay with Vertcoin in Germany: Lübeck, Berlin, Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart.
C&P provides crypto related fashion and is "shipping worldwide with live rates and tracking."
Crypto Compound provides "cryptothemed items" like fashion, mugs & more.
Cryptoble provides "apparel and more". Here are crypto related shirts & mugs.
A webshop selling Crypto mugs (obviously) and some other cool items such as Tshirts and Drones.
Epic Pants is an online retailer who sells products in the categories hardware, apparel, styles, gear, fun, music and art.
GeekBox "offers a wide variety of services including but not limited to basic computer setup, repair, virus removal, server setup, network setup, consulting, purchasing, cloud computing advice, gaming system and electronic repair." As a nice special GeekBox IT provides a Vertcoin Tshirt.
Hipptee provides a range of different cryptocurrency tshirts.
Hodler Tees is a cryptocurrency centered tshirt company based in Frisco Texas! (USA) We sell all things crypto related from hats to tshirts and even posters!
KPV provides Vaporizers, "electronic devices that help you vaporize your material into vapor for cleaner inhalation. People looking to quit smoking cigarettes are the main reason behind vapes."
Founded in 2018, their mission is to promote cryptocurrencies in popular culture with high-quality crypto apparel.
LP is an online store and community. We service the world, no order is too small or too large.
Luma Cards is selling greeting cards for all kinds of occasions. You can now buy high-quality art-based greeting cards with Vertcoin.
"At Nakamoto Clothing, we're passionate about designing and curating a selection of apparel to help grow this movement of change. And we're electrified AF!", international shipping.
Quinsolo proudly accepts decentralized cryptocurrency payments for their crypto themed products.
Online marketplace selling crypto embroided polo shirts
Spreadshirt provides shirts and more. Based in Greensburg, USA, the owner comes from the Netherlands.
Teepublic provides apparel, home goods, shirts, stickers, mugs & more.
The Chopmaster is a woodworker that sells a variety of wooden accessories.
RB gives "independent artists a meaningful new way to sell their creations. Today, we connect over 400k artists and designers across the planet with millions of passionate fans." RB provides a huge asortiment of designed products like bags, wall art, home decor, apparel, stationary & more.
WikiLeaks is a multinational media organization and associated library. It was founded by its publisher Julian Assange in 2006. The shop provides shirts, posters and asseccoires.
Zazzle is a "marketplace, you'll find customizable products, art and createyourown products just waiting for you. We're PhD's, professional artists, manufacturing gurus, patent holders, inventors, musicians, and more. Everything we do is an expression of love." As a nice special Z provides Vertcoin shirts.

Medical

Acupuncture in Massachusetts

Multimedia Services

RDS is Central Virginia’s drone service specialists. From preparation to content delivery, we perform all work to perfection. We can act as both an aerial film consultant or as the remote pilot in charge on your next projects.
Calvin West is a music producer and lyric video artist. Currently based in Spain but with project all around the world. You get a discount if you pay with Vertcoin. Take a look at his projects!

Professional (law) Services

Burrell Law "Our New York Citybased attorneys provide a broad range of transactional legal services" Every large business was once a small business. We are here to help you find a solution for your legal needs.
Bitcoin Tax is "calculating capital gains/losses for any cryptocurrency. Do you know the costbasis of every coin you own? Are you tracking the profits and new basis when you spend or sell? Can you work out the best way to identify your trades to optimize your taxes? Let us do it for you."
The Crypto Lawyers "we are a team of U.S. qualified lawyers dedicated to helping individuals, businesses, and organizations navigate the legal intricacies of cryptocurrency and blockchain technology. We commit ourselves to strategically and aggressively represent our clients in their transactional and litigation matters."

Printing

"Catdi is a commercial printing company with additional specialization in web design. Offering costeffective commercial printing, direct mail, graphic design and web solutions to small businesses. Proudly Serving Houston and surrounding communities for over 10 years."

Technology & Internet

AirVPN is a VPN based on OpenVPN and operated by activists and hacktivists in defence of net neutrality, privacy and against censorship.
With Crpto.space, you can get all the information you spend time checking, instantly every time you open a browser on your desktop or mobile device. Premium package includes the vertcoin homepage and wallpapers.
Jagoda (strawberry) is a videogames platform aiming to distribute digital services for cryptocurrencies that show a direct interest in social activism on different layers.
Evolution Host is a hosting provider where you can pay with Vertcoin. They offer VPS hosting, IRC hosting and game servers on several locations around the world with highend hardware.
"FastTech is the technocentric destination for all your geeky needs and more. FastTech is committed to become the most loved and trusted electronics marketplace by offering superior shopping experience, timely shipping, and stellar customer service."
The first GPS tracking company to accept cryptocurrency as payment. Easy to install and easy to use with options for just about any type of vehicle or trailer.

Video Games

Cavemen Studios is a developer of video games. "Having over a century of combined experience on how video games tick, we've finally decided it's time to start creating our own products."
"Keys4Coins is one of the first pc game stores who only accept cryptocurrency as payment. Our store is simple to use and you can shop anonymously. Only an email is required so you can receive the license."
"Our aim is to provide the fastest, easiest place to buy Xbox Live Gold subscriptions with cryptocurrencies"

Wallets & miscellaneous

Designed Vertcoin public and private wallets that can be used as paper wallets or given as gifts.
LaserLightning provides one etched wooden Vertcoin with the Vertcoin logo burned into one side, and your custom QR code on the back. These coins are approx 1.5 inches in diameter.

(NSFW) Adult shops

Toys4Sex is Australia's Online Adult store retailer intended for men and women. Toys4Sex comes with a specially selected range of products that has made its mark within the Australian adult market place.
submitted by thatmanontheright to vertcoin [link] [comments]

WSB101 - THE BOOK OF YOLO: BEGINNERS GUIDE TO TRADING LIKE A DEGENERATE AND EVERYTHING WSB

The Book of Yolo: COMPLETE GUIDE TO WSB
The goal of this is to actually create something that all of you WSB newbies can read - because we’re all tired of seeing the endless wave of uninformed and unavoidable stupidity from those who have never touched the stock market. CALLING ALL NEWFAGS AND NORMIES.
If you can’t read, GFY now.
Now that we will be on the popular section of reddit, this has become pertinent. WSB can't avoid newcomers, so we might as well explain how the clock ticks here. This one is for you all.
This is to serve as a reference what values we hold, what instruments we use, and as a general place to educated the uneducated.
First off, this is the LEAST helpful stock market-based community for newcomers. Sarcastic answers are the only thing of true value here. It isn't a place to learn, but a place to plan out where you will dock your yacht. Newcomers are usually berated upon asking the inevitable stupid questions that they could learn slowly from reading here, or just using a damn search engine. Instead of embarrassing yourself here, you now have the opportunity to read this and get what we’re all rambling about.
This will help you understand what to expect if you make the decision to undertake a WSB style trading career, so you can stay here and contribute to the yolo lifestyle or otherwise GFY.
I will edit in any suggestions that our frequenting users or mods want to add to this as well.
To begin: Here are our topics for WSB101
-Basics (Equities/Stocks)
;
-ETF's
;
-Options
;
-Futures Trading
;
-SubCulture
;
BASICS/EQUTIES Skip if you understand basic stock stuff
Okay, so what is an equity/stock? An equity is essentially what you’d think of as your “vanilla” trading tool. They move up or down depending on market forces, and can range from pennies to thousands of dollars per share. To explain how stocks work, let's define a few terms.
Volume: The number of shares of stock traded during a particular time period, normally measured in average daily trading volume.
Spread: The difference between the bid and the ask price
Bid Price: The current price in which someone wants to buy at
Ask Price:The current price in which someone wants to sell at
Volatility: The WSB favorite. Volatility is referring to the price movements of a stock as a whole. The higher the volatility, the more the stock is moving up or down. Highly volatile stocks are ones with extreme daily up and down movements and wide intraday trading ranges.
Margin: A margin account lets a person borrow money (take out a loan essentially) from a broker to purchase an investment. The difference between the amount of the loan, and the price of the securities, is called the margin. Margin is one of WSB’s popular instruments of wealth and destruction.
Dividend: This is a portion of a company’s earnings that is paid to shareholders, or people that own hat company’s stock, on a quarterly or annual basis. Not all companies do this.
PPS: Acronym for “Price per Share”
Moving Average: A stock’s average price-per-share during a specific period of time.
Bullish: Expecting the stock to go up
Bearish: Expecting the stock to go down
Any raised hands can redirect themselves to here:
http://www.investopedia.com/articles/investing/082614/how-stock-market-works.asp?ad=dirN&qo=investopediaSiteSearch&qsrc=0&o=40186
Now that these terms are defined, let's move into the details of why this is even useful. Most people know what a stock is, but how and why stocks move is a different story. The stock market is essentially a big virtualization of supply and demand - meaning that usually high positive volume creates upwards movement in the PPS, where high negative volume does the opposite. This creates a trader’s opportunity; Generally, the most effective time to buy or sell is where the candlesticks (volume data) are thinning out. When you are ready to take an entry point or execute an exit point, waiting till the volatility (candlesticks) thin out is one method to give you best trade possible.
WSB FAVORITE EQUITIES: Of many equities, WSB favors the riskier ones - but avoiding penny stocks is a policy.
AMD - CEO Lisa Su, Next Gen Processors, chips, graphics. It’s the gamers gambit. Up roughly 1400% as of 2/7/2017 since WSB first mentioned it
NVDA - AMD’s sister? Mother? Daddy? Who knows. NVDA has been a sexy semiconductor leader. Is up 400% since gaining traction on WSB.
FNMA / pfds - Mnunchin, Trump, Big fat fannies. Get your self deep in the fannie. We all want it. WSB 10 bagger candidate for reforming the housing market. WSB holds a large cumulative position that can be seen below. Also a good read is the beginners guide to FNMA. Any post by u/NOVACPA is very often VERY informative on FMNA/pfds.
https://www.reddit.com/wallstreetbets/comments/5oissp/results_wsb_fnmafmcc_holdings
https://www.reddit.com/wallstreetbets/comments/5t7gba/beginngers_guide_to_fnma_fmcc_read_this_before/
ARRY - A biotech champion that prevailed after a lot of failures and huge losses in the biotech sector. Dark times for WSB. Up ~300% since getting traction on the subreddit.
TWTR - WSB likes to buy put option contracts on her. Exemplary of a social media platform that is unable to monetize itself.
TSLA - Maybe not unanimously a favorite, but loved for it’s sexy volatility, Elon Musk, and ridiculously expensive options.
GILD - A Shkreli pump and dump? The greatest large cap pharma recovery of all time? Who knows. Martin took the time to make a post on this reddit and it is up $5 dollars since.
ETF'S
Welcome to the world of investing made easy. Exchange traded funds (etfs) are devices that can be traded like stocks, but often track the value of many companies by investing in their listed assets accordingly. Specifically, An ETF, or exchange traded fund, is a marketable security that tracks an index, a commodity, bonds, or a basket of assets like an index fund. Unlike mutual funds, an ETF trades like a common stock on a stock exchange. ETFs experience price changes throughout the day as they are bought and sold. ETFs typically have higher daily liquidity and lower fees than mutual fund shares, making them an attractive alternative for individual investors.
ETF’s come in beautiful and delicious varieties, often with a BEAR form and a BULL form of each; but the most delicious to WSB are the 3x etf’s. A 3x ETF is one in which the underlying movement of the ETF is leveraged 3:1. Meaning for every movement within the underlying index or stocks, the 3x ETF moves well.... 3x as much..
WSB FAVORITE AND USEFUL ETF’S:
JNUG - 3x Gold Miner Bull - A hit or miss, has extreme intraday movements and essentially tracks GDX (gold miner’s index). Jnug will usually move with a pretty strong correlation to gold, which is affected by the mentioning of rate hikes (negatively), movement of the US dollar (inversely), uncertainty (positively), and supply and demand.
NUGT - Jnug with a different price tag
JDST - The inverse 3x etf of JNUG - or the bear etf. It does almost exactly the opposite movements of JNUG by the tick. Moves for the same reasons, but obviously opposite directions.
DUST - Jdst with a different price tag.
UGAZ - Natural Gas 3x Bull ETF - essentially tracks the price value of the commodity Natural Gas, but more specifically the S&P GSCI Natural Gas Index ER. The index comprises futures contracts on a single commodity and is calculated according to the methodology of the S&P GSCI Index. Natural gas is most affected by Weather temperature conditions (use your brain), petroleum prices, and broader economic conditions.
DGAZ - Inverse of UGAZ
UWT - Crude Oil Bull 3x ETF - extreme intraday movements, closely follows the price of oil. More specifically, it tracks futures. UWT seeks to replicate, net of expenses, three times of the S&P GSCI® Crude Oil Index ER. The index tracks a hypothetical position in the nearest-to-expiration NYMEX light sweet crude oil futures contract, which is rolled each month into the futures contract expiring in the next month. The value of the index fluctuates with changes in the price of the relevant NYMEX light sweet crude oil futures contracts.
DWT - Inverse of UWT
FAS - Financial Bull, specifically FAS seeks daily investment results, before fees and expenses, of 300% of the performance of the Russell 1000 ® Financial Services Index. The fund creates long positions by investing at least 80% of its assets in the securities that comprise the Russell 1000 ® Financial Services Index and/or financial instruments that provide leveraged and unleveraged exposure to the index. Can be used when bullish on US financial services - so banks, lenders, etc.
FAZ - Inverse of FAS
UPRO - S&P500 Bull 3x ETF, essentially tracks the S&P500 and multiplies it’s returns by 3x.
BRZU - Tracks Brazil (in its most basic form). It creates long positions in the MSCI Brazil 25/50 Index.
LABU - Tracks the Biotech sector, or specifically 300% of the performance of the S&P Biotechnology Select Industry Index ("index"). It should be noted that LABU has doubled since just before the election of Donald Trump.
LABD - Inverse of LABU
RUSL - roughly creates 300% of the performance of the MVIS Russia Index.
RUSS - Inverse of RUSL
SPY - Tracks the S&P500, but is not 3x.
OPTIONS:
Alright, so half you are going to understand this, and half of you are not. Pull up an options chain now on any stock (penny stocks and specific stocks do not have chains because of their market cap). Options are truly the ultimate way to achieve maximum risk/reward.
An option is a contract that gives the buyer the right to buy or sell 100 shares of a stock at a certain price, on a certain date. This concept makes options a commodity themselves.
KEY TERMS:
A CALL - is the right to buy. Buying calls is taking a bullish position in its most extreme form.
A PUT - is the right to sell.
The underlying - is the stock that the option is covering i.e. AAPL, GOOG, AMZN
Strike Price - the price at which a put or call option can be exercised.
ITM, In the money - In the money means that a call option's strike price is below the market price of the underlying asset or that the strike price of a put option is above the market price of the underlying asset. Being in the money does not mean you will profit, it just means the option is worth exercising.
OTM, Out of the money - a call option with a strike price that is higher than the market price of the underlying asset, or a put option with a strike price that is lower than the market price of the underlying asset.
ATM - At the money - Strike price at the same price as the underlying
Expiration - Expiries for options are every friday of every week usually, with exceptions such as every month, or every other day - depending on the underlying. SPY and SPX are great examples of very active option chains with expiries every other day. On the expiry date or any time before (with american options), an option can be, but doesn’t have to be exercised, meaning the holder of the option can use it to buy or sell shares of the underlying stock at the strike price. Most people on WSB do not exercise the contracts, but merely flip them for increases in value as the underlying moves.
For example, when AAPL was at 120 before its earnings report, Joe Shmoe Yolo buys 10 FEB 17th CALLS at strike 127 for .60 , each. Now .60 cents is really 60 dollars each, because the contract is multiplied by 100 (the right to 100 shares). In total, Joe Shmoe Yolo spends $600 dollars + commision on this trade. The next day, AAPL leaps to 130 upon great news. These same option contracts are now worth 3.50 each. $350 dollars per contract, times ten contracts is $3500 dollars. Joe Shmoe Yolo just turned $600 into $3500 dollars. MAGIC. Spoiler alert: Joe Shmoe Yolo was me.
That same Joe Shmoe later buys FEB 17th XOM calls at 90, hoping for similar results. However, XOM ends up never reaching anywhere close to the strike price, and the options expire worthless. Get it?
Now what determines the pricing of options?
OPTION PRICING:
Below is sourced from investopedia
Intrinsic Value: The intrinsic value is the actual value of a company or an asset based on an underlying perception of its true value including all aspects of the business, in terms of both tangible and intangible factors. This value may or may not be the same as the current market value. Additionally, intrinsic value is primarily used in options pricing to indicate the amount an option is in the money.
Time Value: Time Value = Option Price - Intrinsic Value. The more time an option has until it expires, the greater the chance it will end up in the money. The time component of an option decays exponentially. The actual derivation of the time value of an option is a fairly complex equation. As a general rule, an option will lose one-third of its value during the first half of its life and two-thirds during the second half of its life. This is an important concept for securities investors because the closer you get to expiration, the more of a move in the underlying security is needed to impact the price of the option. Time value is basically the risk premium that the option seller requires to provide the option buyer the right to buy/sell the stock up to the date the option expires. It is like an insurance premium of the option; the higher the risk, the higher the cost to buy the option. Makes sense, right?
Time value is determined by the expiration date. An expiration date in derivatives is the last day that an options contract is valid. When investors buy options, the contracts gives them the right but not the obligation, to buy or sell the assets at a predetermined price, called a strike price, within a given time period, which is on or before the expiration date. If an investor chooses not to exercise that right, the option expires and becomes worthless, and the investor loses the money paid to buy it.
Volatility:
In an options pricing, you see IV. This stands for implied volatility. The higher that is, the higher the options will be priced Volatility is the extent to which the return of the underlying asset will fluctuate between now and the option's expiration. Volatility, as expressed as a percentage coefficient within option-pricing formulas, arises from daily trading activities. How volatility is measured will affect the value of the coefficient used.
Decaying Nature of Options:
Decay refers to derivative trading (i.e. options). When you sell or buy a call/put (using those two for simplicity purposes) you don't get an infinite time frame to make your dreams come true. Time is your enemy; the further out the expiration date, the less time decay there is. Time decay really hits the worst the week of expiration. Sound confusing? Say you're buying options of the stock WSB (I hope you're seeing what I did there) - and the option costs $1, the expiration is this Friday. Say today is Monday. You buy a call expecting WSB to take you to the moon and beyond. Each day the stock doesn't move closer to your strike price or remains stagnant/drops, you lose value on your option + the time decay. Meaning if it finishes closer to your strike price, your option could be worthless because of that time decay. Questions? Ask away.
A great example of these factors in action is TSLA.
TSLA’s options are among the most expensive for companies in its price range, why?
An in the money TSLA call expiring this week is worth around $1100 per contract. Insanely expensive. But for a reason. TSLA has extreme intraday movements and calls have an implied volatility of 40.92%. Which is fairly high. In addition to that, it holds high intrinsic value / price per share, and a week of time value.
-Futures 101 - The Ultimate YOLO Guide (thanks to u/IncendiaryGames)
Okay, a lot of you have been YOLOing on faggot delights on SPY options. How would you like to trade something with the same or more leverage, 1.0 delta, and no time premium costs? Have you considered futures? What are futures? Unlike options, futures is a contract where both the buyer and seller is obligated to perform the transaction by the expiration. Conversely, in options, only the seller is obligated to perform. That means you can lose more than your investment. Originally they were used by farmers to sell future crops early and guarantee some amount of sales. Since then futures have expanded not just to commodities but currency and equity indices like the S&P 500. Why the heck would I want to trade futures? Here are the advantages: Leverage $5k is the margin requirement for most contracts. For example with the E-mini S&P 500 with 5k you're trading $120k worth of stuff. 1 contract = 500 spy shares. Some brokers offer intraday daytrading margin rates too - TD Ameritrade is 25% of the overnight margin rate($1,250.) Some brokers go as low as $500 an /ES future. SPAN Margin If 24x overnight leverage and 240x day trade leverage didn't give you a hard on there is also SPAN margin, which is like portfolio margin on steroids. The beauty of SPAN margin is you don't need a $125k+ account to be eligible. SPAN will greatly reduce your margin requirements if you hold uncorrelated or inversely correlated positions (up to an 80% discount, here is a list of groups that give discounts) and if you hedge with options. Hedge with the right option or asset and now you have up to 500x day trading margin. 23/7 and day trading Ever get in and out of an equity only to have your broker yell at you to stop doing that or deposit $25k? There is no pattern day trading restrictions on futures. Feel free to day trade and blow up your account as often as you want! You can also trade 23 hours a day. Get trading on how the S&P 500 index will react to news from China right away. Taxes No matter how long or how short you hold you always get taxed under the 60/40 rule. 60% of your profit from futures will be taxed as a long term gain and 40% will be taxed as short term gain. No wash sales. Trade your hearts out. Just remember holding past Dec 31st will treat you as if you closed all your positions that day and you'll be taxed on unrealized gains. Long/Short No need to pay interest or borrow shares as being short a future contract is being a writer, just like an options writer. Options Of course there are options. What fun would it be without options? Unlike stock options each contract gives different number of future contracts. Research what you're trading.
Ok. I'm convinced. I want to strat trading futures! What are some good strategies?
YOLO Strategies
Swing trading Trying to guess/predict/ride sudden market momentum. A low volume average day in the S&P 500 (/ES) for one contract can swing +- $500. Get it right and you can see a huge appreciation of value. /ES is usually highly liquid during regular hours with average volume of 1 million trades and usually bid-ask spreads of one tick. One approach is to buy or short in your direction and put in a stop loss to an amount you're comfortable to lose (say $200.) Since it's so liquid you'll likely be filled at or near your stop loss during the day if your trade goes against you. If you can guess the direction 50% of the time and have trades like this: trade 1 - gain $800 trade 2 - lose $200 Then you may profit over the time period. If you have a 50% chance of being wrong and losing $200 or 50% chance of being right and gaining $800 then over time you'll gain more than you lose. Also, since the present value of your futures contract is included in your margin calculation then if it goes strongly in your favor your position can quickly grow to cover its own margin and you can let it ride for a while. You'll want to be sure you enter a combo buy/short order along with a stop loss order simultaneously, like this for Thinkorswim. Futures can move suddenly and a sudden movement can make you lose a ton of money. Exploiting outdated SPAN margin guidelines There are several out of date correlations between popular futures like oil and say things like wheat that SPAN gives you margin credits on. Take whatever position you want in oil (/cl) then take the opposite in something that doesn't move much day to day with less volatility such as /w (wheat)) and your /cl and /w positions will get a 75% credit, giving you 50% more buying power on crude oil. (2 positions * .25 = 0.5). Trade your heart out on the more volatile future then when you're done close your safer future pair. SPAN is constantly changing but such a complex system definitely has its exploits. Automated/algorithmic trading For you programmer geeks out there it's really hard to algorithmic trade on small accounts due to pattern day trading rules and economies of scale with broker fees. Futures is probably the best way to get your feet wet. Join us on /algotrading if you want to explore more!
Boring safer strategies
I'm including these for completeness but these belong on /investing. Scalping With high frequency trading scalping is less guaranteed. Basically scalping is using tiny momentum as usually there are small micro patterns in futures buying and selling activity where it will rise or fall a couple of ticks. Since the notional value of each tick is $12.5 it's profitable for retail investors and small accounts to act as a market maker after fees at the smallest bid-ask spread possible. Spreads Just like you can trade spreads in options, you can trade calendar spreads in futures. Futures have contracts with different expiration dates and the prices are different for each month of expiration based on the market's expectations. You can go long or short the near month expiration and the opposite for the far month. This will hedge out any sudden market moves as that would likely affect both months. Bull markets in general tend to increase the price of the near month faster than the far month. Basically with a spread trade you're making a long term bet on bull or bear for the underlying future. Pairs trading You can go long in one future say the dow jones (/ym) and short the S&P 500 index and profit off the relative growth. This is a hedged trade as any market ups or downs will likely affect both positions with the same % value. For the past 180 days /ym - /es has been really profitable. Even if you don't do a full perfect pairs trade it is still a great option to reduce the leverage too on whatever index future you're trading so you can stay in longer or overnight. Interest rate and optimal leverage plays Since the $5k investment is equal to $120k of the S&P 500 index currently then you'll likely beat out the market by buying one future contract and putting $115k in safe treasuries or bonds or uncorrelated assets. Some people choose to leverage their stock portfolio and you can get the exact leverage ratio of liquid investments to future ratios. In probability theory the max leverage you can gain is determined by the Kelly Criterion which modeling shows indicates the S&P 500 index to be leveraged to 1.40x. Yes, you could do the same with options but even on SPY deep in the money call leaps are illiquid and have a time premium. Even today they are so deep ITM that the options you would need to use have 0 open interest and a bid-ask spread of $5 per share (so $500 per contract.) You'd need ~5 contracts per 120k so you're already eating $2.5k/$120k - 2% interest rate a year for that leverage. SPX isn't better, it's bid ask is 22 so you'd be eating $2.2k/$120k - 1.83% interest rate. It's doubtful you won't get much past the ask as its only market makers providing liquidity and guess what the market maker will do if you buy/sell the option? They will hedge with the underlying futures until their minimum profit is the risk free interest rate. Hedging Going long and short in various non correlated or negatively correlated assets to seek out a high sharpe ratio and have a higher risk free return that is market neutral. Basic hedge fund stuff. The variety and price efficiency of futures makes things pretty attractive in this area.
SUBCULTURE
Wallstreetbets is a community that has become infamous for the most wild west, moon or cardboard box trades on the planet earth. WSB is a place where you can take out thousand dollar loans, refinance your homes, cash advance all of your credit cards only to put it all on JNUG, and we will still love you. Your mother won't. Your father will never understand your spectrum of autism, but we will always love you. It is a uniquely beautiful community focused on praising its biggest losers as much as its biggest winners. To begin on the subculture, we should define some key moments in the sub's history.
HISTORY: (As made by u/digadiga) + my additions
2012: Jartek [+1] creates /wallstreetbets, and word slowly starts to ooze out. 2013: americanpegasus discovers pennies. AP has seen the light, and is a penny stock evangelist. Jartek & AP have an epic options vs pennies battle - they both lose a couple of hundred bucks, but we are entertained, and WSB is officially born. AP blows up his retirement, swears off pennies and moves onto bitcoins. 2014: fscomeau [+3] discovers options. He repeatedly bets five figures on AAPL calls before earnings. FS claims a supernatural clairvoyance of AAPL. FS then posts about his chest pains and ER visits. He finally suffers an epic loss. Is he dead? Is he alive? Is he is mother? Is he banned? Who cares? 2015: Photos from the 3rd annual meetup are posted. Where a bunch of dudes hang out on the romantic beaches of Guerrero Mexico. In a completely unrelated event, the wsb banner is changed to thousands of ejaculating dicks. Modpocalypse occurs. Hundreds of random users are added as moderators for a few months. None of the new mods can change the CSS. The constant whining about how "wsb isn't what it used to be" continues. Someone attempts to show how selling covered calls is idiot proof, but gets lazy, bets all six figures on Apple, and suffers significant losses. Robinhood gets popular. Should you buy one share of AMZN or one share of GOOGL? Who gives a fuck. 2016: Everyone starts saying "go fuck yourself." Except me. Because I am what I am. And if you don't like it, you can all go fuck yourselves. u/World_Chaos performs one of the more impressive yolo's of the sub, starting with 900 dollars, and turning it into 55k. https://www.reddit.com/wallstreetbets/comments/414blh/yofuckinglo_900_to_55k_in_12_days/?ref=share&ref_source=link 2017: u/fscomeau preforms what he calls "The Final Yolo", a 300k trade against AAPL before earnings (that I, u/thor303456 inversed), supposedly supposed to net fscomeau 2.5 million or so, in which he will finally stop trading. FSC is featured on several market related articles and newspapers, showing up on yahoo, etc. Later we find proof during his livestream of AAPL earnings that he was paper trading. Even later, FSC writes a near 200 page book called "Wolfie Has Fallen" describing how he trolled the entire internet, some following him into that AAPL trade. Martin Shkreli visits the sub and proclaims that GILD pharma is worth over $100 a share and is deeply undervalued.
KEY FIGURES:
Donald J Trump - He is the Marmalade Manchurian, the Tangerine Tycoon, and our spray tan Stalin. Unbelievable night of election. WSB demographics show a primarily capitalist and right wing (or at least joking to be so) point of view, and thus we are generally pro trump. In actuality though, WSB is focused on pro-market, which Trump happens to be.
u/Jartek - Founder of the sub, original yoloer. Believe he has retired from reddit for the most part. Mostly inactive.
u/Fscomeau - The Canadian as some call him, and perhaps one of the most profound internet trolls of 2016-2017. A French-Canadian trader who deals with mostly options. The man has been called "The Great Inverse", and for a good reason. Nearly all of the trades or statements he made on WSB were completely wrong or mostly wrong. Truly the strongest technical indicator.
Martin Shkreli - An idol to many WSBers, Martin stands as the master of the biotech sector. A very debated character for very stupid reasons. Martin regularly tweets about the stock market, occasionally does a youtube channel, and livestreams fairly regularly.
u/theycallme1 - Educated trader, and mod of WSB. Roasts people often and roasts them good. Ask him the questions that aren't stupid. One of the most active mods.
u/world_chaos - some fucking college student with some real net worth. Sits on 100k or so (needs verification), and was an inspiring yoloer to all, with his 900 to 55k yolo with options.
Lingo, Terminology, and Nomenclature:
The Faggots Delights - Truly the most suicidal, yet clearest shot to the moon. This term is usually used to define either weekly, or daily option plays on the SPY/SPX. Some users trade them very profitably, such as u/MRPguy and many in the past.
Cuck - Truly the worst thing you could be. A cuck is a man who likes watching his wife/girlfriend fuck other guys. Weak, spineless, and a term often throw around here.
The YOLO - You only live once. This is something that is, and should be realized as undeniably true. Why are you sitting on a 5k emergency fund that is making you less interest in a year than what I just made in 10 minutes? Why haven't you used all of the credit on your 5 credit cards or used your testicles as collateral for a loan yet? YOLO or YOLOING is as much a psychological decision to embrace absurdism, and win with everything you have while risking it all. Yolo is what it means to be a WSB trader.
Bagholding or a Bagholder - When you're stuck with the most ass trade of your life, because you know it'll go back up. A bagholder is the 59 year old guy at the grocery store who won't quit his Job because he knows he only has to wait another year until he gets a return on his investment (of his life). Anyone holding SUNEQ is the definition of a bagholder.
Autists - Something we embrace, something we call each other, something we all are. Autism isn't used in an offensive way as much as it is a generally accepted term that defines us. The best traders have autism because of their distance from emotion. I bet you never made it to this part of the reading because you're such a damn autist.
Tendies - Tendies are what you get after you make a small amount of money. "I SOLD AMD TODAY FOR A $13 DOLLAR PROFIT, GOING TO MCD's TO GET MY TENDIES". Tendie money is usually shameful and insignificant, but at least it got you tendies. Chicken tenders at McDonalds are the least expensive for the most cholesterol.
I know some of the writing was half ass, full of errors, or otherwise not the best explanation. But I believe this will serve its purpose, and maybe help to promote new ideas from moderately educated traders. WSB has very strong traders, and the most uniquely risky trading styles on the planet. Hopefully this can serve to better the overall community.
You guys are all faggots, upvote this so we can get the noobs to stop trying to bite on our cocks.
Also I'd really appreciate input on anything to add to this overall. It took my over 3 hours to write up, so I eventually grew tired and probably have missing spots.
Enjoy your time here at WSB.
EDIT: Added a shit ton of stuff, fixed errors. THANKS FOR ALL OF YOUR INPUT, ACTUALLY MAKING WSB GREAT AGAIN
MODS: Can we make this editable by others mods or something? My fingers aren't enough. Seems like this could serve as a good "official" thing. Paging u/theycallme1 u/CHAINSAW_VASECTOMY etc
submitted by Thor303456 to wallstreetbets [link] [comments]

Merchant mondays- Fork edition

Welcome back to Merchant mondays

Merchant mondays is the moment to show your appreciation for the businesses that lead the way in the adoption of cryptocurrencies. Instead of paying with fiat for your next purchase, use this Monday initiative to pay with VTC instead.
Vertcoin Merchant website
This monday i'll mention two stores for you to take a look at. Both of them offer a nice variety of items. Teepublic offers a lot of different kinds of clothing and Flubit sells practically everything you can imagine. Check out their fork related items below

Debit cards

With UQUID, buying online and sending money to friends is made easier and safer than ever: all you need is an email address. Your money is protected, no personal information is revealed, and you can retrieve the details of every payment at any moment.

Charity

Helperbit is a free and transparent way to support a charity project. You can donate to charity in Vertcoin and give something back to the world.

Education

LearnCrypto offers training about Crypto trading.The team at LearnCrypto.io has dedicated thousands of hours to educating the public and our students in all areas of Cryptocurrencies.

Food

PexPeppers is specialized in "finest chili sauces, jellies, salts, seeds & more." Based in Pueblo, Colorado, USA PexPeppers is selling all over the world.

Garden & Agriculture

Royal Queen Seeds is amongst the fastest growing cannabis seed companies in Europe. After building up many years of experience in growing cannabis seeds in the Netherlands, we decided to launch our own line of cannabis seeds and are now able to offer you quality feminized, autoflowering and medical seeds at a good price.

Gift Cards

Coincards provides Giftcards and was created in July of 2014.
Crypto De Change provides Gift Cards and Silver Buillons since July 2013.
Giftoff is a "digital gift card retailer with the largest range on offer in Europe. Since 2014 we’ve been enabling digital currency users to shop with major retailers like Amazon.co.uk, Steam and Marks & Spencer. We stock over 70 gift cards and accept over 40 digital currencies as well as UK credit and debit cards."
The Sheldon Store is a online store where you can buy giftcards with Cryptocurrencies. You can buy Amazon, iTunes, Google Play, PlayStation, Uber, Netflix (and many more) gift cards. The Sheldon store team consists of cryptocurrency enthusiasts working together, driven by a single goal; to create a world where everyday people earn, spend and invest cryptocurrency like they would any other fiat currency in their everyday life.

Goods/Merchandise

Astronaut Apparel makes every effort to operate in a transparent and ethical manner. We will be integrating blockchain features to help with supply chain management, so that you can see exactly where your apparel was made.
Barter4Crypto is a platform where users can offer and pay each other in cryptocurrencies for services and products.
Bullcrypto is a brand new apparel shop that sells everything from tshirts to hats or from mugs to posters!
An online marketplace (similar to Ebay) with buyer and seller protection. This platform allows you to buy and sell products for Crypto with escrow possibilities for Vertcoin.
Cyroline is on "the tireless hunt for the special in the fashion world, the perfect fusion of individual styles, quality and sustainability." In physical stores you can pay with Vertcoin in Germany: Lübeck, Berlin, Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart.
C&P provides crypto related fashion and is "shipping worldwide with live rates and tracking."
"Cryptobird is a partnership to start a full crypto based webshop with high quality fashion to contribute to a wider cryptocurrency adoption around the globe."
Crypto Compound provides "cryptothemed items" like fashion, mugs & more.
Cryptoble provides "apparel and more". Here are crypto related shirts & mugs.
A webshop selling Crypto mugs (obviously) and some other cool items such as Tshirts and Drones.
Epic Pants is an online retailer who sells products in the categories hardware, apparel, styles, gear, fun, music and art.
Shop over a million products at Flubit and pay with Vertcoin. They offer a range of products, from electronics to stuff for your home. A one-stop-shop if you are looking to spend some Vertcoin. Check it out!
GeekBox "offers a wide variety of services including but not limited to basic computer setup, repair, virus removal, server setup, network setup, consulting, purchasing, cloud computing advice, gaming system and electronic repair." As a nice special GeekBox IT provides a Vertcoin Tshirt.
Hipptee provides a range of different cryptocurrency tshirts.
Hodler Tees is a cryptocurrency centered tshirt company based in Frisco Texas! (USA) We sell all things crypto related from hats to tshirts and even posters!
KPV provides Vaporizers, "electronic devices that help you vaporize your material into vapor for cleaner inhalation. People looking to quit smoking cigarettes are the main reason behind vapes."
Founded in 2018, their mission is to promote cryptocurrencies in popular culture with high-quality crypto apparel.
LP is an online store and community. We service the world, no order is too small or too large.
Luma Cards is selling greeting cards for all kinds of occasions. You can now buy high-quality art-based greeting cards with Vertcoin.
"At Nakamoto Clothing, we're passionate about designing and curating a selection of apparel to help grow this movement of change. And we're electrified AF!", international shipping.
Quinsolo proudly accepts decentralized cryptocurrency payments for their crypto themed products.
Online marketplace selling crypto embroided polo shirts
Spreadshirt provides shirts and more. Based in Greensburg, USA, the owner comes from the Netherlands.
Shillshop provides stickers in outdoor quality and is "based in The Netherlands, all the products we sell are also produced in The Netherlands to make sure you'll receive the highest quality!"
Teepublic provides apparel, home goods, shirts, stickers, mugs & more.
RB gives "independent artists a meaningful new way to sell their creations. Today, we connect over 400k artists and designers across the planet with millions of passionate fans." RB provides a huge asortiment of designed products like bags, wall art, home decor, apparel, stationary & more.
VTCmarket is founded by the Dunn twins Raf & Tom: "We’ve started off with Tshirts and are working on expanding with other products and merchants"
Jzzsxm's Online Store provides a 1.5" diameter metal Vertcoin Medallion. Each medallion costs 2 VTC and comes with a metalized label containing a wallet address QR code of your choice affixed to the back.
WikiLeaks is a multinational media organization and associated library. It was founded by its publisher Julian Assange in 2006. The shop provides shirts, posters and asseccoires.
Zazzle is a "marketplace, you'll find customizable products, art and createyourown products just waiting for you. We're PhD's, professional artists, manufacturing gurus, patent holders, inventors, musicians, and more. Everything we do is an expression of love." As a nice special Z provides Vertcoin shirts.

Medical

Acupuncture in Massachusetts

Multimedia Services

RDS is Central Virginia’s drone service specialists. From preparation to content delivery, we perform all work to perfection. We can act as both an aerial film consultant or as the remote pilot in charge on your next projects.
Calvin West is a music producer and lyric video artist. Currently based in Spain but with project all around the world. You get a discount if you pay with Vertcoin. Take a look at his projects!

Professional (law) Services

Burrell Law "Our New York Citybased attorneys provide a broad range of transactional legal services" Every large business was once a small business. We are here to help you find a solution for your legal needs.
Bitcoin Tax is "calculating capital gains/losses for any cryptocurrency. Do you know the costbasis of every coin you own? Are you tracking the profits and new basis when you spend or sell? Can you work out the best way to identify your trades to optimize your taxes? Let us do it for you."
The Crypto Lawyers "we are a team of U.S. qualified lawyers dedicated to helping individuals, businesses, and organizations navigate the legal intricacies of cryptocurrency and blockchain technology. We commit ourselves to strategically and aggressively represent our clients in their transactional and litigation matters."

Printing

"Catdi is a commercial printing company with additional specialization in web design. Offering costeffective commercial printing, direct mail, graphic design and web solutions to small businesses. Proudly Serving Houston and surrounding communities for over 10 years."

Technology & Internet

AirVPN is a VPN based on OpenVPN and operated by activists and hacktivists in defence of net neutrality, privacy and against censorship.
With Crpto.space, you can get all the information you spend time checking, instantly every time you open a browser on your desktop or mobile device. Premium package includes the vertcoin homepage and wallpapers.
Jagoda (strawberry) is a videogames platform aiming to distribute digital services for cryptocurrencies that show a direct interest in social activism on different layers.
Evolution Host is a hosting provider where you can pay with Vertcoin. They offer VPS hosting, IRC hosting and game servers on several locations around the world with highend hardware.
"FastTech is the technocentric destination for all your geeky needs and more. FastTech is committed to become the most loved and trusted electronics marketplace by offering superior shopping experience, timely shipping, and stellar customer service."
The first GPS tracking company to accept cryptocurrency as payment. Easy to install and easy to use with options for just about any type of vehicle or trailer.

Video Games

Cavemen Studios is a developer of video games. "Having over a century of combined experience on how video games tick, we've finally decided it's time to start creating our own products."
"Keys4Coins is one of the first pc game stores who only accept cryptocurrency as payment. Our store is simple to use and you can shop anonymously. Only an email is required so you can receive the license."
"Our aim is to provide the fastest, easiest place to buy Xbox Live Gold subscriptions with cryptocurrencies"

Wallets & miscellaneous

Designed Vertcoin public and private wallets that can be used as paper wallets or given as gifts.
LaserLightning provides one etched wooden Vertcoin with the Vertcoin logo burned into one side, and your custom QR code on the back. These coins are approx 1.5 inches in diameter.

(NSFW) Adult shops

Toys4Sex is Australia's Online Adult store retailer intended for men and women. Toys4Sex comes with a specially selected range of products that has made its mark within the Australian adult market place.
submitted by thatmanontheright to vertcoin [link] [comments]

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